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MASTER DEVELOPMENT 

& 
MANAGEMENT PLAN REPORT 



Prepared for: 

CITY OF GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 




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Prepared by: 

BUFFINGTON ASSOCIATES 

GREENWAYS INCORPORATED 

G.L. MARQUEZ AND ASSOCIATES, INC. 

ANDREW KAPLAN, ARCHITECT 

A. F. CLEWELL, INC. 

WILD THINGS, INC. 

SOUTHARC, INC. 



•'4 



Revised As Of 
March. 1994 



MASTER DEVELOPMENT 

and 

MANAGEMENT PLAN REPORT 



As Approved In Concept By: 

City of Gainesville 
City Commission 

July 7 & 26, 1993 



As Approved By: 

Alachua County 
Board of County Commissioners 

July 27. 1993 



With Modifications As Requested By: 

Florida Communities Trust 

December 22, 1993 



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Page No 

INTRODUCTION 1 

PROJECT PURPOSE 5 

EXISTING CONDITIONS 7 

ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES 7 

TOPOGRAPHY 7 

GEOLOGY, SOILS AND GROUND WATER 7 

SURFACE WATER HYDROLOGY 10 

FLORA WITHIN STUDY AREA 12 

THREATENED SPECIES 17 

INVASIVE OR NON-NATIVE VEGETATION 18 

FAUNA WITHIN STUDY AflEA 18 

CULTURAL RESOURCES 21 

CULTURAL EVALUATION OF THE PROJECT STUDY AF^A 21 

Methodology 26 

Preliminary Evaluation Results 26 

Recommendations 27 

CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS 28 

Ring Park 28 

Loblolly Environmental Education Facility 28 

Kanapaha Botanical Gardens 28 

MAN-MADE FACILITIES/LAND USE EVALUATION 28 

POTENTIAL & KNOWN POLLUTION SITES/DEGRADED LANDS.... 29 

Cabot Carbon /Koppers Superfund Site 29 

Farmer's Mutual Exchange 29 

Bailey's Branch/Gainesville Mall 29 

Shands Swamp 29 

Westgate Shopping Center Area 31 

Sugarfoot Prairie 31 

University of Florida Landfill 31 

Interstate 75 31 

Dam on Lake Kanapaha 31 

Split Rock 31 

Kanapaha Water Reclamation Plant 32 

PROJECT GOALS 33 

ENVIRONMENTAL GOAL 33 

TRANSPORTATION GOAL 33 

RECREATION GOAL 33 

HEALTH AND FITNESS GOAL 33 

QUALITY OF LIFE GOAL 33 

PUBLIC ACCESS/PRIVACY GOAL 34 

SAFETY AND SECURITY GOAL 34 

EDUCATION GOAL 34 

OPERATIONS AND MANAGEMENT GOAL 34 



FINANCIAL GOAL 34 

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT GOAL 34 

CULTURAL RESOURCE GOAL 34 

PROPERTY ACQUISITION 35 

RECOMMENDED GREENWAY FACILITIES 39 

NW 23RD AVENUE, AT GAINESVILLE MALL, TO ELKS CLUB LODGE . 39 

GHSTO ELKS CLUB LODGE VIA NW 23RD AVENUE 41 

GAINESVILLE HIGH SCHOOL TO ALFRED A. RING PARK 41 

ALFRED A. RING PARK 41 

ELKS CLUB LODGE TO NW 22ND ST. VIA NW 23RD AVE. R.O.W 41 

NW 16TH AVENUE TO NW8TH AVENUE 41 

ALONG NW 8TH AVENUE TO NW 34TH STREET 47 

NW 34TH ST. TO LOBLOLLY ENVIRONMENTAL ED. FACILITY 49 

BLACK ACRES BIKE PATH 51 

LOBLOLLY ENVIRONMENTAL ED. FACILITY TO WESTGATE S. C 51 

WESTGATE SHOPPING CENTER TO CREEKSIDE MALL 54 

CREEKSIDE MALL TO NW 34TH ST. @ UNIV. OF FLORIDA 54 

CREEKSIDE MALL TO GREEN ACRES PARK 57 

GREEN ACRES PARK TO SUGARFOOT PRAIRIE 57 

GREEN ACRES PARK TO OAKS MALL 57 

SUGARFOOT PRAIRIE TO FOREST PARK 59 

SW 20TH AVENUE TO 1-75 61 

SW 20TH AVENUE TO OAKS MALL 61 

1-75 TO KANAPAHA BOTANICAL GARDENS 61 

GREENWAY IMPROVEMENTS WEST OF KANAPAHA BOT. GAFIDENS.. 64 

KANAPAHA BOT. GARDENS & WEST SIDE OF LAKE KANAPAHA 66 

STAGECOACH ROAD TO SW 75TH STREET 66 

ALONG TOWER ROAD TO ARCHER ROAD 66 

SW75TH STREETTO 1-75 ALONG SW 24TH AVENUE 66 

OTHER RECOMMENDED FACILITIES 69 

GREENWAY SIGNAGE 69 

LIGHTING OF GREENWAY FACILITIES 70 

BATHROOM & POTABLE WATER FACILITIES 71 

PICNIC, SCENIC VIEW SHED AND REST AREAS 71 

USE OF RECYCLED WASTE MATERIALS 72 

IMPACTS OF GREENWAY DEVELOPMENT 73 

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS 73 

PROJECTIONS OF USE/LANDSCAPE CARRYING CAPACITY 73 

INFLUENCES OF PROPER TRAIL TREAD DEVELOPMENT 76 

IMPACTS ON ADJACENT PROPERTIES 76 

BUFFERING AND SCREENING 77 

MITIGATING VISUAL BLIGHT 77 

PERMITS REQUIRED FOR GREENWAY DEVELOPMENT 78 



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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PLAN 81 

WATER QUALITY AND QUANTITY 82 

SOIL MOISTURE, COMPACTION AND LOSS LEVELS 88 

PLANTS: COMMUNITY STRUCTURE, COMPOSITION & DYNAMICS 88 

MAMMALS: OCCURRENCES AND DENSITIES 89 

BIRDS: OCCURRENCES, DENSITIES, NESTING & REPRODUCTION... 89 

REPTILES. AMPHIBIANS, FISH AND OTHER ORGANISMS 90 

FACILITY MANAGEMENT AND MAINTENANCE 91 

FACILITY MAINTENANCE 91 

LANDSCAPE RESTORATION 92 

ASSIGNMENT OF MAINTENANCE RESPONSIBILITIES 94 

GAINESVILLE NATURE OPERATIONS DIVISION 94 

GAINESVILLE PARKS DIVISION 94 

GAINESVILLE PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT 94 

VOLUNTEER TRAIL OFFICERS 95 

ALACHUA COUNTY 95 

FACILITY MAINTENANCE AND MANAGEMENT COSTS 95 

DESCRIPTION OF MAINTENANCE/MANAGEMENT ACTIVITY 97 

GREENWAY SAFETY AND SECURITY 98 

GREENWAY HOURS OF OPERATION 99 

GREENWAY USER RULES AND REGULATIONS 99 

POLICE/PARK OFFICER PATROL & EMERGENCY RESPONSE 101 

MAJOR ROADWAY CROSSINGS 101 

RISK MANAGEMENT AND LIABILITY 104 

POTENTIAL IMPACT ON MUNICIPAL INSURANCE 104 

PILOT PROJECT DEVELOPMENT COSTS 105 

POSSIBLE PILOT PROJECT FACILITIES 105 

PILOT PROJECT COST ESTIMATES 106 

SOURCES OF FUNDING FOR DEVELOPMENT 107 

GREENSPACE TRUST FUND 107 

STORMWATER UTILITY FUND 107 

MUNICIPAL BOND ISSUE 107 

SWAP/DONATION OF LAND 107 

ALACHUA COUNTY FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION 108 

INTERMODAL SURFACE TRANS. EFFICIENCY ACT (ISTEA) FUNDS ... 108 
ADDITIONAL POTENTIAL FUNDING SOURCES 108 

PHASING PLAN FOR IMPLEMENTATION 109 

THE PILOT PROJECT 109 

PHASE II DEVELOPMENT 109 

PHASE III DEVELOPMENT 109 

PHASE IV DEVELOPMENT 110 



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http://archive.org/details/hogtowncreekgreeOOgain 



APPENDIX A: ECOLOGICAL SURVEY & MANAGEMENT 
RECOMMENDATIONS 

APPENDIX B: FLORIDA COMMUNITIES TRUST ANNUAL 
REPORTING PROCEDURES 

APPENDIX C: INTERLOCAL AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE 

CITY OF GAINESVILLE & ALACHUA COUNTY 



LIST OF TABLES 



Page No. 

TABLE 1 . KEYNOTE SPECIES OR FEATURES 22 

TABLE 2. LISTED ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN HOGTOWN CREEK GREENWAY .... 24 

TABLE 3. INTENSITY OF TRAIL USE 74 

TABLE 4. ENVIRONMENTAL SUITABILITY OF TRAIL USE WITHIN SENSITIVE 

ENVIRONMENTS 75 

TABLE 5. NORMAL MONTHLY RAINFALL DATA 83 

TABLE 6. AGENCIES AND INDIVIDUALS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE HOGTOWN CREEK 

GREENWAY SYSTEM 96 

TABLE 7. INTERSECTION ANALYSIS 103 



LIST OF MAPS 



Page No. 

MAP 1 . GREENWAY SEGMENTS 4 

MAP 2. REGIONALLY SIGNIFICANT FACILITIES 6 

MAP 3. SOILS (2) 8 

MAP 4. CREEKS. LAKES. WETLANDS 11 

MAP 5. 100-YEAR FLOOD PLAIN (2) 13 

MAP 6. ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY TYPES 15 

MAP 7. ECOLOGICAL SURVEY SITES 23 

MAP 8. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SENSITIVITY 25 

MAP 9. POTENTIAL AND KNOWTM POLLUTION SITES 30 

MAP 10. PUBLIC PARCEL ACQUISTIONS 36 

MAP 11. PRIORITY PARCEL ACQUISTIONS 37 

MAP 12. PROPOSED STORMWATER MANAGEMENT PROJECTS 87 

MAP 13. PREFERRED DESIGN CONCEPT Ill 



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LIST OF FIGURES 



Page No. 

FIGURE 1. TYPICAL SIGNAGE DEVELOPMENT 40 

FIGURE 2. TYPICAL SOIL CEMENT PEDESTRIAN TRAJL 42 

FIGURE 3. TYPICAL PEDESTRJAN BOARDWALK 43 

FIGURE 4. TYPICAL PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE 44 

FIGURE 5. TYPICAL MULTI-USE TRAIL 45 

FIGURE 6. TYPICAL MULTI-USE BOARDWALK 46 

FIGURE 7. N.W. 8TH AVENUE TWO-WAY MULTI-USE TRAIL 48 

FIGURE 8. PREFERRED SITE PLAN FOR LOBLOLLY AREA 50 

FIGURE 9. BLACK ACRES NEIGHBORHOOD MULTI-USE TRAILS 52 

FIGURE 10. TYPICAL BRIDGE DETAILS 53 

FIGURE I I . TYPICAL BRIDGE UNDERPASS FOR MULTI-USE TRAIL 55 

FIGURE 12. MULTI -USE TRAIL BETWEEN CREEKSIDE MALL AND APARTMENTS 56 

FIGURE 13. UTILIZATION OF SUGARFOOT PRAIRIE STORMWATER MGMT BERM 58 

FIGURE 14. TRAILS AT THE S.W. 20TH AVE. BRIDGE 60 

FIGURE 15. INTERSTATE-75 OVERPASS AT HOGTOWN CREEK 62 

FIGURE 16. TYPICAL BOARDWALK FACILITY AT LAKE KANAPAHA 63 

FIGURE 17. TRAIL HEAD FACILITIES AT KANAPAHA BOTANICAL GAFiDENS 65 

FIGURE 18. OBSERVATION PLATFORM AT LAKE KANAPHA 67 

FIGURE 19. TYPICAL PARALLEL EQUESTRIAN AND PEDESTRIAN TRAILS 68 

FIGURE 20. TYPICAL GREENWAY FENCING 79 

FIGURE 21. DESIGN STORM RAINFALL DATA 85 



INTRODUCTION 



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Master Development Si Management Plan 
Hogtown Creek Greenway 

Gainesville, Florida 



mTRODUCTION 

In 1967, t±ie Gainesville Department of Community Development first 
identified the Hogtown Creek flood plain as a potential open space system 
worthy of protection from urban encroachment and for the future enjo3rment of 
residents. A 1970 study by Smith and Sanderson proposed that the Hogtown 
Creek flood plain should become a linear open space system that provides 
storm water runoff control, protects water quality, and serves as a vegetative 
buffer between land uses. The study envisioned a network of trails for hiking, 
biking and canoeing that linked neighborhoods to parks and places for 
shopping and emplo3nTient. The study also recommended that the flood plain 
be preserved as a refuge for wildlife. 

Over the years numerous studies have been completed for the Hogtown Creek 
flood plain, all of which reached the same conclusion as the Smith and 
Sanderson study. For example: 

• In 1973. the North Central Florida Regional Planning Council identified 
Hogtown Creek as over-developed and recommended a multi-use 
recreational land use concept that would protect the natural resources of 
the creek and flood plain lands. 

• In 1974, a study by Christensen called for the establishment of a 
greenbelt system for the Hogtown Creek drainage basin. 

• In 1978, a study of the Hogtown Creek flood plain by the University of 
Florida, Department of Landscape Architecture (Cooper) cites the lack of 
recreational facilities west of 13th Street, and recommends a 
"greenspace" system of trails that would link parks and schools to 
neighborhoods. 

In 1982, the City of Gainesville adopted a creek protection ordinance 
prohibiting development within 35 feet of the centerline of Hogtown Creek, and 
restricting or prohibiting some forms of urban development 35 to 150 feet of 
the creek. This action began a process of further protection by the City, 
including the acquisition of property and adoption of the Comprehensive Plan 
(1991) which called for the establishment of greenways throughout the city and 
surrounding areas. Since 1984, the City has acquired 191 acres of land 
adjacent to the creek in an effort to comply with the recommendations of these 
planning studies. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville, FL 1 Management Plan 



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In 1992, the City applied for a Florida Communities Trust (FCT) Preservation 
2000 Program grant, to fund the acquisition of lands for the proposed Hogtown 
Creek Greenway, a 6-mile, 1,786 acre multi-objective study corridor. FCT 
grants are provided to improve the quality of life in Florida communities 
through recreation and conservation oriented projects. Out of 50 project 
applications state-wide, the Hogtown Creek Greenway was ranked # 1 by FCT 
and received its top financial award. 

In March 1993, the Consulting Team of Buffington Associates of Gainesville, 
FL and Greenways Incorporated of Cary, NC were employed by the City of 
Gainesville to prepare a Master Development and Management Plan for the 
Hogtown Creek Greenway to satisfy guidelines set forth by the FCT grant, and 
provide direction to the City for future project implementation. This Master 
Development and Management Plan report is intended to provide resolution to 
the acquisition of lands for the greenway, development recommendations for 
greenway facilities, and operation, management and maintenance guidelines to 
ensure that the project protects the public health, safety and welfare of 
community residents. This document serves as a complement to the graphic 
plan maps, design sketches and other planning materials prepared by the 
Consulting Team. 

Citizen participation in the planning and design of the Hogtown Creek 
Greenway has been and continues to be of prime importance to the City of 
Gainesville. Through an extensive national review of similar greenway projects, 
the City has learned that many successful greenways are designed, 
implemented and managed through public-private partnerships with local 
residents. This project has been organized and administered to include the 
participation of local citizens. On April 23, 24 and 25, 1993, a citizens- 
oriented Hogtown Creek Greenway Design Charette was conducted by the 
Consulting Team and City and Alachua County staffs to solicit concerns, ideas 
and recommendations from the community regarding future design 
development of the project. The conclusions from this charette form the basis 
for recommendations within this report. These recommendations are 
supplemented with the expertise of the Consulting Team, and professional 
staffs from the City and County, to satisfy the planning and design 
requirements of the project. 

Most importantly, this Development and Management Plan addresses and 
satisfies requirements of the Florida Communities Trust Program 2000 grant, 
defining: 

• the purpose of the greenway and activities that will be promoted through 
project implementation. 

• physical improvements that will be made to greenway lands, including 
access and alterations to land use or landscape character, size /type of 
facilities, easement, concessions and leases that will be granted, and 
permits that are required for development. 

• key management issues related to maintenance, security, staffing, 
natural resource protection, archaeological and historical protection, 
and how management will be coordinated with adjacent land uses. 

Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 2 Management Plan 



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• resource enhancement, including restoration of plant and animal 
habitat, wetlands and surface water quality. 

• cost estimates and funding sources for land acquisition, facility design 
development, maintenance, restoration and enhancement activities. 

• priority schedule for funding and implementation of project activities. 

• a monitoring plan for development and management of project lands and 
activities. 

During the development of the Master Development and Management Plan it 
was discovered that sixteen parcels, FCT-1 through FCT-16, all of which are 
located between NW 39th Avenue and NW 23rd Boulevard, were inadvertently 
not designated on the Recreational Greenways map in the data and analysis 
report of the City's newly adopted Comprehensive Plan. As a result, these 
parcels could not legally be included as part of the Hogtown Creek Greenway 
Project site or its Master Development and Management Plan. The loss of 
these parcels reduced the Project Site to a 6-mile, 1.786-acre study corridor 
(See Map I). Consequently, the City of Gainesville's City Commission has 
gone on record stating that in 1994, the Land Development Code will include 
these sixteen parcels as designated greenway lands within the City's Greenway 
District, as originally intended. 

The Comprehensive Plan gives the City the authority to modify the 
Recreational Greenways Map through Policy 2.1.3 of the Recreation Element, 
which states that: by 1994, the City shall develop public access trails or 
boardwalks along publicly-owned segments of Hogtown Creek. The City 
Commission will adopt by resolution an amendment to the Recreational 
Greenways Map to include the sixteen parcels. This amendment action and 
changes to the Land Development code will be reflected in the Hogtown Creek 
Greenway Project 1994 Annual Report to be presented to the Florida 
Communities Trust. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville, FL 3 Management Plan 



Greenway Segments 

Hogtown Creek Greenway 



GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 



LEGEND 

^— • Hogtown Creek Greenway 
Boundary Line 



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MAP 1 



Prppiwad by »!• 

D«par1ni«nl o( Co«nrn»irtry O«v«4oom»n( 

Augull 1992 



PROJECT PURPOSE 



PROJECT PURPOSE 

It is the primary objective of the proposed Hogtown Creek Greenway is to 
protect, restore and preserve the remaining ecologically sensitive and important 
landscape features within the Project Site, and secondarily, to provide 
structured and controlled access to these lands through a comprehensive 
network of trails and other public facilities. 

The proposed Hogtown Creek Greenway is a 1,786 acre, 6-mile multi-objective 
study corridor that extends from NW 23rd Boulevard to Lake Kanapaha in the 
City of Gainesville and portions of Alachua County, Florida. This unique 
community project offers local residents with an opportunity to protect 
important open space lands for biological diversity, improve water quality, 
mitigate stormwater flows and enhance aesthetic beauty of the landscape. The 
greenway will provide residents with access and use of some protected lands 
through a system of designated off-road, multi-purpose trails for environmental 
education, resource-based passive recreation and alternative transportation, 
serving to link community resources together (See Map 2). Finally, this project 
will make highest and best use of certain lands that serve important ecological 
functions, and revitalize, through redevelopment, some existing land uses so 
that they are better able to function as community resources. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 5 Management Plan 



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Regionally Significant Facilities 

Hogtown Creek Greenway 



GAINESVILLE. FLORIDA 



LEGEND 

"-ii— Hogtown Creek Greenway 
Boundary Line 




MAP 2 



PrtparM by »i« 

D*p«nm«ni 01 Cammuritf D«v«<opm«<it 

August 1M2 



1. 

2. 

3. 
4. 
5. 

e. 

7. 

a. 

9. 
10. 

11. 

12. 
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14. 
15. 
18. 
17. 
18. 
10. 
20. 
21. 
22. 



Qslnesvllle Mall 
Olen Sprlng«/Elk« Club 
Ring Park 

Oalnesvltle High School 
J.J. FInley Elem. School 
Weslwood MIddIa School 
Weslslde Park 
Lllllewood Elem. School 
Loblolly Environmental Education Carder 
Stephen Foster Elem. School 
Olen Spring* Elem. School 
Westgate Shopping Center 
Creekslde Mall 
University ol FlorkJa 
Oreen Acre Park 
Terwilllger Elem. School 
Forest Park 

Perlorming Arts Center and Muaetim 
34th Street Shopping Center 
Water Reclamation Plant 
Kanapaha Park 
Kenapeha Botanical Gardens 



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EXISTING CONDITIONS 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 

ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES 

The City of Gainesville, Alachua Conservation Trust and Consulting Team 
members Wild Things, Inc. and A. F. Clewell conducted an extensive evaluation 
of the Hogtown Creek flood plain and landscapes within the Project Site. The 
results of these evaluations are summarized in the following text. A more in- 
depth evaluation of ecological communities authored by Wild Things and A. F. 
Clewell is provided in Appendix A of this report. The Project Site is comprised 
primarily of bottomland forests, flood plain landscapes and upland mixed 
forests, most of which are densely vegetated, and provide excellent habitat for a 
variety of plants and animals. The Project Site is one of the most biologically 
unique environments in North Central Florida, supporting a broad diversity of 
ecological communities. 

TOPOGRAPHY 

The Hogtown Creek drainage basin is characterized by gentle to flat slopes 
through much of the middle portion of the Project Site. In the northern 
sections, steep slopes border the creek, and around Lake Kanapaha, elevated 
limestone bluffs border the southeastern edge of the lake. 

Much of the natural topography along the Project Site has been altered by man 
through the years. Significant changes include roadway beds, cut and fill 
slopes that support urban development, berms to guide the flow of stormwater, 
and channelized sections of the creek. 

GEOLOGY. SOILS AND GROUND WATER 

Alachua County is underlain by marine and non-marine deposits of sand, clay, 
marl, gravel, limestone, dolomite and dolomitic limestone. The Hawthorn 
Group clays are located northeast of the Interstate 75 corridor, within areas 
known as the Northern Highlands Marginal Zone. Creeks and streams in this 
zone flow into sinkholes either before or after they enter the Western Valley 
limestone plain, and continue to cut headward into the Highlands Plateau to 
the northeast. Karst features are particularly well developed along the linear 
cross-country fracture zone which runs in a northwest to southeast direction 
through the zone. Both the Hawthorn and underlying limestone are 
extensively fractured in the zone. The Western Valley lies southwest of the 1-75 
corridor, and includes the Lake Kanapaha area. In the Valley, the clay layer is 
absent, and the Ocala Group limestones are at the surface, contributing to the 
unique bluffs that surround the southeastern edge of the Lake. See soil t5rpes 
represented in the Project Site shown on Map 3. (Source: Gainesville 
Department of Community Development 1991) 

The Project Site is underlain by three aquifer systems: the surficial aquifer 
(water table), the intermediate aquifer, and the Floridan aquifer. Southwest of 
1-75, only the Floridan is present. The surficial ground water zone consists of 
a sequence of undifferentiated, relatively porous sands and clayey sands which 
are typically 10 to 30 feet thick in the Gainesville urban area. Where present, 

Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 7 Management Plan 



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Soils (NE 1/2) 

Hogtown Creek Greenway 



GAINESVILLE. FLORIDA 



LEGEND 




Prapwod by Kit 

0«)Mi1mwK o( Comrnimlly D«v»lnp>ni>nl 

AogujI loo? 



Soil Legend 

Candl«r Fin« Sand 0-5X Slopes 

Anedondo Fine Sand 5% Slopes 

Arredondo Fine Sand 5 8% Slopes 

ArredondO'Uiban Land Complex 0-5% Slopes 

Fort Meade Fine Sand 0-5% Slopes 

Kanapaha Sand 0-5% Slopes 

Mlllhoppef Sand 5% Slopes 

Millhopper Send 5 8% Slopes 

Millhoppe(U*an Land Complei 05% Slopes 

Riviera Sand 

Pelham Sand 

Pomona Sand 

Pomona Sand 

Surrency Sand 

WauchulaUrban Land Complex 

Monleocha Loamy Sand 

Tavares Sand 5% Slopes 

Samsula Muck 

Ufban Land 

Lochloosa Rne Sand 2 5% Slopes 

Loctiloosa Fine Sand 5-8% Slopes 

Kendrick Sand 2-5% Skipes 

Blk:hlon Sand 2 5% Slopes 

Blichlon Sand 5 8% Slopes 

Bivans Sand 2 5% Skipes 

Blvans Sand 5 8% Skjpes 

Placid Sand. Depfessk>nal 

Gainesville Sand 0-5% Stopes 

Arenis 5% Slopes 

Zotto Sand 

PUs and Dumps 

Bonneau Fine Sand 2-5% Skipes 

Blichlon-Urban Land Complex 0=5% Skjpes 

Jonesville-CadiHac Bonneau Complex 0-5% Slopes 

Candler-Apopka Complex 5% Slopes 

Waler 



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Soils (SW 1/2) 

Hogtown Creek Greenway 



GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 



LEGEND 

^—^ Hogtown Creek Greenway 
Boundary Line 



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MAP 3 cont. 



0«par1m9nl ol Commwuy 0«v«4opm«ol 
Augux '99? 



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the surficial aquifer in this zone operates under mainly confined, water table 
conditions. The Hawthorn Formation is the intermediate zone, and the aquifer 
in this zone is contained under confmed conditions. In the urban area, water 
withdrawn from both the surficial and intermediate aquifers is used for 
domestic and landscape irrigation purposes. (Source: Gainesville Department of 
Community Development 1991) 

In the Project Site, the Hawthorn Formation is variable in thickness and 
perforated by sinkholes, leaving the Floridan semi-confined. Ground water 
flow within the Floridan is to the west/northwest. However, in the 
northeastern portions of the Project Site, flow movement is to the northeast 
due to the municipal well field. (Source: Gainesville Department of 
Community Development 1991) 

SURFACE WATER HYDROLOGY 

The Project Site is wholly contained by the Hogtown Creek watershed basin, 
which is approximately 13,700 acres in size. Annual rainfall averages 52 
inches, with about half occurring during the months of June through 
September. Major surface waters within the Project Site include Hogtown 
Creek, Lake Kanapaha, Hogtown Prairie, Haile Sink and Sugarfoot Hammock 
and Prairie (refer to Map 4). Surface water flow is from northeast to southwest. 

Hogtown Creek is a stream-to-sink system, originating at several spring heads 
and eventually draining into Haile Sink, which discharges into the lower part 
of the Ocala Group limestone. This 180-foot sinkhole has recorded flows that 
vary from a low of 1.2 cubic feet per second to a high of 671 cubic feet per 
second. Recharge is to the upper zone of the Floridan aquifer, and together 
with Alachua Sink and Lake Alice, accounts for 75 percent of the recharge in 
the greater Gainesville urban area. (Source: Alachua Conservation Trust 
1992, Gainesville Department of Community Development 1991) 

Hogtovcn Creek itself represents elements of three unique riverine communities: 
Spring-run Stream, Seepage Stream and Blackwater Stream. While the creek 
originates north of Gainesville in the Buck Bay and Potato Patch areas, the 
upstream portion of the creek receives year-round flow from Glen Springs at 
23rd Avenue and Seepage along the creek banks from south of 39th Avenue. 
For the most part the creek waters are typically clear coming from the springs 
and seepage, in periods of high flow the water is perceptibly blackened due to 
the high level of tannins present from decomposing needles and leaves. Mid- 
valley areas of Hogtown Creek are subject to sheet-flow during periods of storm 
runoff. After reaching base level, streams shift their positions in their wide 
valleys with each flood water event. Former channels are abandoned and the 
character of the creek takes on a braided appearance. Following flooding, 
former channels remain filled with standing water, a condition that not only 
contributes to occasional increases in the "blackwater" color, but also 
promotes the breeding of amphibians and insects. (Source: Wild Things and A. 
F. Clewell 1993) 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 10 Management Plan 



Creeks, Lakes, Wetlands 

Hogtown Creek Greenway 



GAINESVILLE. FLORIDA 



Wetlands 
Lakes 



Hogtown Creek Greenway 
Boundary Line 



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mr.es 




MAP 4 



P>Ppaf»<Jby »>• 

Department o( Commtmitf D*v«4ocvn«nl 

AuQusl 199? 



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Please refer to Map 5 which illustrates the general location of flood plains 
within the Project Site. Most of the proposed greenway lies within the flood 
plain of Hogtown Creek. 

FLORA WITHIN STUDY AREA 

The Hogtown Creek drainage basin represents a variety of mesic upland, wet 
flatwoods. flood plain and basin wetlands, lacustrine, riverine, and xeric 
communities. Recognized community types closely parallel those defined by 
the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) classification system. Many of 
these habitats are remarkably well represented and despite a long history of 
human impacts in and around the area, have maintained a high level of 
ecological integrity. The habitats encountered, though sometimes distinct, are 
frequently observed as ecological gradations amongst the more purely described 
"types." This point is particularly important to the project, where a long history 
of human occupation of, and interaction with the areas natural resources is 
evident (See Map 6). 

Descriptions of general types of habitats are important to the processes of 
design and broad scale management. The plant list (Please see Appendix A) 
consists of 53 1 taxa, of which 473 are identified to species and 58 are known 
only to genus. Seventeen of the species encountered are state or federally 
listed or proposed for listing as species of special concern, threatened or 
endangered. Many more of the species are considered by local experts rare or 
uncommon. Several species were encountered that had not previously been 
documented from Alachua County and thus, a range extension was 
established. At least 17 species of exotic plants were identified, although it is 
believed that many more exotics exist. The plant list provided in Appendix A of 
this report is the most complete for Hogtown Creek. 

The evaluation of flora throughout the Project Site defines the presence of 
thirteen distinct vegetative communities. A brief description of each 
community follows: 

Upland Mixed Forest - Found primarily in the northern and southern portions 
of the Project Site, this dominant habitat is found from NW 23rd Avenue to 
NW 16th Avenue and within uncleared lands around Lake Kanapaha. These 
landscapes are characterized by closed-canopy forests of upland hardwoods. 
Sugarfoot Hammock is an example of this type of forest within the Project Site 
and is home to the extremely rare and unique Sugarfoot Fly [Neopalpus 
nearcticus) . 

Upland Mixed Forest habitats have been reduced dramatically by residential 
and silvicultural development. Most of these forests seem to be increasingly 
invaded by exotic plants, a cause for serious concern if ecological integrity is to 
be protected. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL ' .12 Management Plan 



100 Year Flood Plain (NE 1/2) 

Hogtown Creek Greenway 



NW 39TH AVENUE 



QAINESVIULE. FLORIDA 



LEGEND 



Hogtown Creek Greenway 
Boundary Line 



NW lem AvENue 




NW atH AVCNUC 



SW 2orH AVINUC 



MAP 5 



Prmpim4 by ti« 

O»poflm«ot of Conwniviiry 0«v*lopmAnt 

August \902 



13 



100 Year Flood Plain (SW 1/2) 

Hogtown Creek Greenway 



GAINESVILLE. FLORIDA 



LEGEND 



Hogtown Creek Greenway 
Boundary Line 



ii 



muTr.H nut 




MAP 5 cent. 



Pr«p«r*d by tit 
0«p«rlm«»n4 of CommtWty D«v*lopm«nl 



14 



HOGTOWN CREEK GREENWAY 

Gainesville, Florida 




Community Types 



Bottomland Forest 
Basin Marsh 
Basin Swamp 
Floodplain Forest 
Floodplain Marsh 
Floodplain Swamp 



SE3 
LEADER 



1^ Marsh Lake 
Spring 

Sinkhole Lake 
Seepage Stream 



SEE 
LEADER 



SEE 
LEADER 



^^ Upland Mixed Forest 



oXo„oA 



o o o„o, 

'o°o°oVo; 

Q o o.o„o„' 



Xeric Hammock 

Sand Hill 

— I 

. i Developed Areas 



miles 
1 



15 MAP 6 



Bottomland Forest - Occurs south of 16t±i Avenue in large patches frequently 
grading into areas of Flood plain Forest and other, wetter habitats. These 
forests are characterized by low-lying, closed -canopy, tall, straight trees with 
either dense shrubby understory and little ground cover, or an open understory 
and ground cover of ferns, herbs and grasses. While typical bottomlands are 
subject to annual or semi-annual flood events, the Hogtown Creek 
bottomlands are more frequently flooded. In addition, the volume of drainage 
through these bottomlands has been increasing steadily due to urbanization of 
the watershed. Consequently, it is likely that species diversity has been 
reduced and levels of exotics increased. 

Flood plain Forest - These forests overlap throughout the Hogtown Creek flood 
plain with Bottomland Forests. In the southern portion of the creek system, 
they grade into Flood plain Swamp. The hydroperiod of this forest type is the 
principal defining character. The forests are flooded for up to half the growing 
season. While these forests are usually without standing water during the dry 
season, the seasonal flooding experienced in the summer is critical to the 
health of the forests themselves as well as the communities downstream. 
Species composition of this community could be severely impacted by changes 
in the levels and course of the creek. 

Flood plain Marsh - At least two pockets of Flood plain Marsh were identified. 
Both are associated with the Flood plain Forest south of NW 8th Avenue and 
one of the sites is just outside the study area. The habitat is characterized by 
herbaceous vegetation (typically grasses and sedges) with some small shrubs. 
According to FNAI, these areas experience regular and frequent flooding (250 
days/year), as well as occasional low intensity bums (every 1-5 years). These 
conditions keep invasive shrubs and trees from expanding into the marsh and, 
eventually, excluding the grasses. This area, however, may now be encroached 
upon so heavily by residential development that future safe burning is not 
possible. Succession to Flood plain Forest is probable. 

Flood plain Swamp - An extensive area of Flood plain Swamp extends from the 
southern edge of the Sugarfoot Prairie to just west of SW 34th Street. The 
abundance of buttressed trees and high lichen lines in this habitat attest to 
the high frequency of flooded conditions. Many small areas within this habitat 
hold isolated ponds of water for long periods of time, releasing them only as 
floodwaters return to flush them out. This release of leaf-litter steeped water is 
partly responsible for the blackwater aspects of the creek. These isolated ponds 
are also critical for the reproductive cycle of many amphibians. 

Basin Marsh - Also called Wet Prairie, this habitat dominates Sugarfoot Prairie 
and extends south around Lake Kanapaha. The area probably developed in a 
solution depression and is fire- and hydroperiod-maintained. Flooding at least 
200 days per year and burning every 1-10 years has kept this area from more 
serious encroachment by arboreal species. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 16 Management Plan 



Basin Swamp - Beginning just east of 1-75 and continuing west at the lower 
portion of the Project Site, Bottomland Forests grade into Basin Swamp, and 
Hogtown Creek becomes highly divided, even in times of very dry weather. To 
the north is the upland mixed forest habitat of Sugarfoot Hammock and to the 
south is Lake Kanapaha. It is characterized by periodic dry periods and 
occasional fire. Hydroperiods are critical, as in other wetland communities, in 
maintaining species diversity and preventing catastrophic fires. 

Marsh Lake - Lake Kanapaha is a large shallow depression lake surrounded by 
bands of aquatic vegetation but it is open in the middle. Lake water is derived 
mostly of runoff from surrounding uplands, and the lake functions as an 
aquifer recharge source in times of drought (FNAI). However, the lake's water 
level can fluctuate in response to ground water levels and water volume in the 
Creek. Even though water levels change significantly in the lake, it is 
permanent home to many species. 

Sinkhole Lake - These deep inverted cone-shaped depressions occur on 
limestone formations, where subsurface solution erosion reduces the layer 
above, resulting in collapse of the surface. As a result, these depressions fill 
with runoff water or ground water. This habitat is considered endangered in 
Florida, and should be protected from erosion-causing uses, including high 
intensity unpaved trails. There are two sinkhole lakes at the south end of Lake 
Kanapaha. 

Xeric Hammock - An isolated area of this unique habitat occurs in Green Acres 
Park, where it abuts Flood plain Swamp with almost no ecotone transition. It 
is common to find young xeric hammock, but very rarely do you find mature 
xeric hammock. This habitat is an artifact of more extensive Sandhill areas of 
the ancient past, and is becoming increasingly rare because of its suitability for 
urban development. 

Sandhill - Characterized by open sand on rolling hills with longleaf pine, 
wiregrass, and gopher tortoises, this type of community was once common 
within the Gainesville City limits, but is rarely found today. Fire is a 
dominant ecological factor in this community type. Frequent fire (every 2-5 
years) helps to maintain this habitat and the plants within. Gopher tortoises 
are abundant in this area. This area is also extremely fragile and should be 
protected from high-intensity passive recreation activities. 

THREATENED SPECIES 

The following is a listing of rare, uncommon, threatened or endangered species 

that are known to exist within the Project Site: 

Coontie Zamiajloridana 

Needle Palm Rhapidophyllum histrix 

Jackson Vine Smilax smallii 

Godfrey's Privet Forestiera godfreyi 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 17 Management Plan 



INVASIVE OR NON-NATIVE VEGETATION 

The most significant invasive, non-native vegetation found within the Project 

Site includes: 

TREES 

Mimosa Albizziajidibrissin 

Japanese Paper Mulberry Broussonetia papynfera 

Camphor Tree CinryirrLomum camphora 

Chinaberry Melia azedarach 

Chinese Tallow Sapium sebifenim 

Green Ligustrum Ligustrum lucidum 

Variegated Ligustrum Ligustrum sinense 

VINES 

Coral Vine Antigonon leptopus 

Air Potato Dioscorea bulbifera 

Japanese Honeysuckle Lonicerajaponica 

HERBACEOUS ANNUALS & PERENNIALS 

Mexican Clover Richardia scabra 

Wandering Jew Tradescontiajhxminensis 

(Source: Alachua Conservation Trust) 

FAUNA WITHIN STUDY AREA 

The landscapes evaluated as part of the Project Site contain an abundant 
variety of wildlife. Due to the fact that the Project Site is narrow in parts, and 
linear by purpose, a comprehensive evaluation of all species is not possible, as 
many animals may only be passing through the corridor on their way to other 
destinations. The Consulting Team has generated a list of fauna from 
fieldwork, personal communications with authorities in this area of study, and 
literature review. Lists of most common types of wildlife are provided in 
Appendix A of this report. 

The evaluation of fauna throughout the Project Site defines four distinct 
groups. A brief description of each group follows: 

Mammals - Numerous small rodents and insectivores are common in each of 
the habitats previously described. Other large mammals, such as armadillos 
and opossums are common, while spotted skunks, striped skunks, and gray 
foxes are infrequently observed. Three species of rabbit are known to exist, and 
are common to the grassy areas of the corridor. Coyotes are increasingly found 
in rural areas surrounding the City, so the possibility exists that they are 
passing through the Project Site corridor. River otters have been observed in 
Hogtown Creek within the past decade. Although they have not been visually 
observed, abundant otter signs have been observed as recent as June 1993. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 18 Management Plan 



Raccoons are very common throughout the corridor, but may be rarely seen 
because they are nocturnal and tend to avoid interaction with humans. Larger 
mammals such as deer, bear and panther will not tend to use many portions of 
the corridor due to human habitation. However, the Lake Kanapaha region 
offers opportunity for some connection to the San Felasco Hammock and 
Paynes Prairie. Although the benefits of the "corridor theory" (Noss and Harris 
1986) to mammals is disputed, the presence of larger mammals, especially deer, 
may depend on how the greenway system is developed. 

Birds - A diverse group of wintering migratory and breeding songbirds 
(passerines) and birds of prey (raptors) are supported by the variety of 
community types found in the study area. The Lake Kanapaha region provides 
excellent habitat for a variety of waterfowl, herons, and waterbirds. Over 100 
species were identified by the preliminary field survey -- this should be 
considered a "short list" of birds for the area. Among the more significant finds 
are a pair of bald eagles, wood stork and the loggerhead shrike, a species which 
is declining throughout its range. Given the extensive conversion of forested 
and wetland habitats to agriculture and residential land use, this area should 
be regarded as critical to the continued viability of these species. 

Many migratory songbirds currently breed and nest in the mixed and 
bottomland hardwood forests of the study area. The selection of nesting sites 
are probably explained in part by the absence of human occupation and active 
use in the area. The lack of human presence is probably also a factor in the 
high incidence of nesting in the larger interior woodland zones such as the 
Sugarfoot Prairie and Sugarfoot Hammock areas. The riparian woodlands are 
important for insectivorous birds, such as swallows, robins, thrushes, and 
warblers, while the prairie and lake areas are critical for raptors dependent on 
small mammals, lizards, snakes and frogs. This area is also close enough to 
the nesting habitats of Paynes Prairie that the open prairie species such as 
bittens and meadowlarks utilize the lake area. 

Songbirds often increase in species diversity with suburban development. This 
effect is largely due to an increase in the variety of micro habitats (exotic fruit 
and flowering ornamentals) and frequently provided feeders. In some cases, 
native bird species could be reduced due to the success of other exotic species. 
One goal of the greenway should be to minimize this effect by preserving 
contiguous natural forest, where native passerines will be less threatened by 
crowding (Stouffer and Best 1990). Studies are ongoing as to the minimum 
critical size of habitat fragments for each species. 

Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish - The herpetofauna of headwater areas in 
Hogtown Creek basin probably includes creek-side salamanders. There is also 
a chance that certain upland and flatwoods species intrude into these narrow 
valleys from adjoining habitats. There is nothing unique about midvalley 
amphibian and reptile faunas. The herpetofauna includes species that are 
adapted to variable water levels. Impoundment by road embankments on the 
upgrade side of midstream areas (NW 8th Avenue) impacts vegetative cover and 
probably disrupts terrestrial and wetland invertebrates, and, to a lesser extent, 
vertebrates. 

Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 19 Management Plan 



IT 



Herpetological communities in tJie Kanapaha basin include species that favor 
aquatic sites. Herpetological species from this area include the rusty mud 
salamander. Described by Goin and Netting (1942 Ann. Carnegie Mus., 29: 175- 
196), this salamander was initially collected in the Hogtown Creek basin. Two 
of the species, defined from the Consulting Team's investigations, are proposed 
for federal listing as Threatened species. Although not previously collected in 
the Project Site, these species could use ephemeral pools in the Kanapaha 
basin. 

The gopher tortoise is a "species of special concern" in Florida, and declining in 
Gainesville due to habitat loss. According to the Florida Game and Fresh 
Water Fish Commission (FGFWFC) the respiratory bacterial disease that is 
reaching epidemic proportions in other areas of the state has not affected local 
gopher tortoise populations. Active gopher tortoise colonies exist west of the 
University's Behavior Research Lab and in small sandy upland patches around 
Sugarfoot Prairie. Over 20 burrows were located at the Behavior Lab site alone. 
This area is rather isolated and does not allow natural escape should 
conditions change. If their burrow locations cannot be protected translocation 
to other suitable sandhill sites is suggested. 

The fish fauna includes approximately 16 native species and an undetermined 
number of exotics. Notropis chalybaeus is the only representative of a 
traditional creek fauna; other fish inventoried are typical of ponds, lakes and 
sluggish streams. Dissolved oxygen levels are critical to native fish 
communities, which in turn supports a variety of species including raccoons, 
osprey, eagles and otters. Constant flow rates in designated streams are 
required during the hottest periods of the year in order to ensure minimum 
oxygen requirements for fish. Native species have less tolerance of low oxygen 
levels than some exotic fish. A complete fish survey was not performed as part 
of the field investigations by the Team. It is suggested that the public be 
encouraged to work with a local agency to develop baseline information on fish 
populations, by recording their catches and other sampling programs. 

Crustaceans, MoUusl<^ and Insects - Large cra3^sh {Pennsylvanius clarkii), related 
to the Louisiana crayfish, were observed in Glen Springs, and probably occur at 
other locations. An unusual crayfish was reported in the late 1930's from a 
creek-side seepage area in the upper portion of Hogtown Creek. Other than 
this observation, the known range of the species is considerably north of 
Gainesville. The Hogtown population represents the most southern known site 
of occurrence. The presence of this unusual crustacean should be confirmed 
through more detailed investigations. Numerous species of clams and snails, 
as well as exotics have been recorded from Hogtown Creek, but unfortunately 
their status is undetermined at this time. 

No comprehensive inventory of invertebrates exists for Hogtown Creek or 
adjacent areas. Noteworthy species include the gomphid dragonfly and the 
nymph, which is an extensive creek bank burrowing species and a good 
indicator of water quality. Some creek damselfly nymphs are also good water 
quality indicators. The latter species was observed extensively on the creek 
bottom in the NW 8th Avenue bottomlands. 

Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 20 Management Plan 



Perhaps the best known insect species of the Project Site is Say's Spiketail, a 
large species of dragonfly that occurs in adjacent Possum Branch, and has 
attracted the attention of entomologists from around the world. (Bill Maufrey, 
Personal Communication). According to the International Odonata Research 
Institute, it is very likely that the Possum Branch population (the largest in 
the world) is not the only one in the Project Site, and that seepage dependent 
species may occur in the Project Site north and south of Glen Springs. The 
species is currently a candidate for listing by the FGFWFC and is considered 
vulnerable. Two additional species dependent on this seepage community are 
the Gray Petatail and Furtive Forktail, two rare species of damselfly that have 
been seen in the Glen Springs area. 

Probably the best locally known of all invertebrates in the Project Site is the 
Sugarfoot Fly. This unique fly is the only member of its subfamily known to 
occur in North America (Amoroso 1991) and the Sugarfoot Hammock location 
is one of only two sites from which it is known. All that is known of this 
species is that adults are most active during the wettest part of the year -- 
June to October. The fly is active during the night and rests in the bark of 
trees during the day. The dominant tree species at the fly site are Sweetgum, 
Hophombean, Sugarberry. Redbay, and Swamp Chestnut Oak. Without 
accurate field data, there is little that can be done to protect the species other 
than to leave its habitat undisturbed. The species is a candidate for listing by 
FGFWFC and is considered vulnerable. 

Several Keynote Features of the Project Site deserve special mention, and do 
not conveniently fit into the description of flora and fauna. These are listed 
within the following Table 1 and illustrated on the enclosed Map 7, entitled 
Ecological Survey Sites. 

CULTURAL RESOURCES 

The Hogtown Creek basin was populated by native Americans for approximately 
10.000 years. Several archaeological sites have been documented by the 
Department of State, Division of Historical Resources (DHR). The Florida 
Master Site File contains 15 archaeological sites within the proposed Project 
Site, as illustrated in Table 2. Additional sites have been cataloged in the 
vicinity of Lake Kanapaha and Sugarfoot Hammock. There are no known 
buildings of historiccd interest within the Project Site. 

CULTURAL EVALUATION OF THE PROJECT STUDY AREA 
A preliminary cultural resources evaluation of the Hogtown Creek Greenway 
project was conducted by SouthArc Incorporated of Gainesville, in April 1993, 
to identify areas of high, medium and low potential for archaeological or 
historical resources (See Map 8). This study defined sensitive areas within the 
Project Site as well as a scope of work that will be required for more intensive 
survey and site assessment once specific facility development projects are 
determined to be implemented 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL -21 Management Plan 







i! 



Site 


Keynote Species or Features 


1 


Species in this wetland area include water shrew, marsh rat; osprey, ducks, coots and 
manv migrator^' bird species. 


2 


Remarkably large sabal palms and live oaks 


3 


Population of aquatic plant, Nuphar hiica: birds include Terns, Great Blue Herons, 
galinulc, coots Other animals include alligators and gar fish (some over 2ft long) 


4 


Species include abundant nesting Osprey 


5 


Area contains unique limestone fault line in Mesic Hammock bordering remnant Sand 
Hill habitat 


6 


Area is remnant Sand Hill, an ecological succession to hammock Species include 
Gopher Tortoise and one of the tortoises favorite foods, the cactus Opunlia humifuso 


7 


Large individuals of Gum and Elm trees and perhaps the best seasonal population of 
Lobelia cardmalis occur where the creek becomes highly dissected. 


9 


Species include remarkably large examples of red bay tree, Persea harhonio 


11 


Species include Carex intumcscem, Bnmelia reclinata var. reclinafa, Arundinaha 
giganiea, Aesctilus pavia, Hymcnocallis rotalo 


12 


Area of rolling topography, dry hammock grading down to more swampy conditions 
near the creek 


15 


Most dense concentration of poison ivy observed. Occurring in the ecotonc. Paw Paw 
{Asimtna pan'i flora) 


16 


(toylussachia sp and other species of Xcric Hammock are well represented. Tlic XH 
is considered the climax community, originally a Scrub area, fire has been excluded 
here for manv years 


17 


Extensive Osprey habitat. Plant species include; Splranthes ccrnua, I'.piJenJrum 
conopstnm (both orchids), Arisaema triphy/lum, large Querais virginiana 


18 


Tliis "pine island" or isolated Sand Hill habitat is unique in the greenway Area, and is 
perhaps one of the most fragile. It is presently home to a vcr\' dense population of 
Gopher Tortoise which have lately been heavily predated (dug up and killed) by dogs. 


19 


Species incl: Trillium rccurvalo, Arundinaha gigantea, Acsculus pavia, Arisaema 
triloba, Sabal minor; and very large specimens of Planera aqualica (Water Elm) 


20 


Marsh is dominated by Zizaniopsis milliacea (wild rice) 


21 


Species include Aesculns pavia, Spiranthes cernua (orchid), Acer Jloridana, 
Forestiera (native privet), Crataegus unijiora, Arundinaria gigantea, Zizaniopsis 
milliacea (wild rice) 


22 


Species include swamp chestnut oak; Arisaema triphyllum. Spruce Pine {Pinus 
glabra): clubtail dragonfly (indicator species for water quality) 


24 


Ring Park species include native Rhododendron, Haw, Bumelia and numerous other 
planted natives. 


25 


Species include the Needle Palm {Rhaphidophyllum histrix), Homwort {Phaeoceros 
sp.y, Jack-in-the-pulpit {Arisaema triphyllum) 


26 


Pair of Bald Eagles nesting just northeast of dike area. Nest is in one of only two tall 
pine trees available. 



NOTE: NOT ALL STTES HAVE KEYNOTE SPECIES OR FEATURES 



TABLE 1 



22 



HOGTOWN CREEK GREENWAY 

Gainesville, Florida 




Ecological Survey Sites 

and 
Community Types 



Bottomland Forest 



:^-:-:-:>-l Basiii Marsh 



SEE 
LEADER 



SEE 
LEADER 



SEE 
LEADER 



SEE 
LEADER 



Basin Swamp 
Floodplain Forest 
Floodplain Marsh 
Floodplain Swamp 
Marsh Lake 
Spring 

Sinkhole Lake 
Seepage Stream 



<:^ Upland Mixed Forest 



Xeric Hammock 
Sand Hill 
. ! Developed Areas 



miles 



NOTE: 

THE SURVEY SITES INDICATED ABOVE ARE GENERAL UXZATIONS OF LARGER AREAS STUDIED. 



23 



MAP 7 






ir 



II 



LISTED ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES 
IN THE 
HOGTOWN CREEK GREENWAY 



Site # 


Parcel 


Site Neune 


Culture 


Type 


8AL02333 


FCT-17 


Glen Springs 


Indeterminate 


Artifact 
scatter 


8AL02497 


FCT-18 


Colony Park 


Alachua; 
Early Archaic 


Artifact 
scatter 


8AL00070 


FCT-2 


Watkins 


Deptford 


Artifact 
scatter 


8AL00390 


FCT-41 


Un-named 


Prehistoric- 
ceramic 


Burial mounds 


8AL00388 


FCT-41 


Un-named 


Prehistoric- 
unspecified 


Middens 


8AL00463 


FCT-49 


Henderson 
Mound 


Prehistoric- 
unspecified 


Prehistoric 
mounds 


8AL00465 


FCT-51 


Un-named 


Archaic; 
Deptford 


Habitation 


8AL00387 


FCT-52 


Un-naroed 


Prehistoric- 
ceramic 


Midden 


8AL00389 


FCT-53 


Un-named 


Prehistoric- 
unspecified 


Midden 


8AL00258 


FCT-54 


Un-named 


Prehistoric- 
ceramic 


Artifact 
scatter 


8AL00172 


FCT-60 


Un-named 


Prehistoric- 
unspecified 


Artifact 
scatter 


8AL00160 


FCT-62 


Proctor Farm 


Hickory Pond 


Artifact 
scatter 


8AL00173 


FCT-62 


Proctor North 
Field 


Prehistoric- 
ceramic 


Artifact 
scatter 


8AL00174 


FCT-62 


Sam Harrell 


Prehistoric -non 
ceramic 


Lithic quarry 


8AL00451 


FCT-62 


Proctor Farm 


Prehistoric -non 
ceramic -archaic 


Artifact 
scatter 


8AL00159 


FCT-69 


B.F. Williams 


Deptford 


Artifact- 
scatter 


8AL00157 


FCT-71 


Damron 


Prehistoric- 
unspecified 


Lithic scatter/ 
quarry 


8AL00158 


FCT-72 


Arrowhead Fish 
Camp 


Prehistoric- 
ceramic 


Artifact 
scatter 


8AL00443 


Westgate 
Shopping 
Center 


Hogtown Creek 


Prehistoric- 
archaic 


Artifact 
scatter 



24 



TABLE 2 



Archaeol ogical and ffistorical Se nsitivity Areas 

HIGH SENSITIVITY 
MEDIUM SENSITIVITY 
I I LOW SENSmVITY 



HOGTOWN cree:k greehway 

PROJECT SITE 



CITY OF GAINESVILLE. FLORIDA 

DEFT. OF CULTURAL AND NATURE OPERATIONS 



lOOOR. \ ^ 



Kanapaha Park 




Kanapaha 
Botanical Gardens — I 



N.W. 29th 
Road Bridge 



\ ' Gainesville Mall 



- Westgate Shopping Center 
— University of Florida 
Creekside Mall 



— Alfred A. Ring Park 



25 



MAP 8 



Methodology 

SouthArc employed a broad reconnaissance method for evaluating the Project 

Site. Project tasks included: 

1) Background research to identify known sites and the environmental 
characteristics of the tracts proposed for greenway acquisition. This 
information was utilized to define the sensitive areas. The data was obtained 
from the record of the Florida Master Site File office, the original Federal land 
survey maps and notes, historic materials on file at P. K. Yonge Library of 
Florida History and Alachua County archives, previous cultural resource 
studies within the county, topographic maps, soil surveys, and historic and 
modem aerial photography. 

2) Preparation of a brief report outlining the results of this task and the 
development of a map showing the levels of sensitivity within the greenway 
corridor. The report and this level of effort are not designed to satisfy the 
DHR requirements for cultural resource surveys. In order to meet those 
requirements, subsurface testing will be required. 

Preliminary Evaluation Results 

SouthArc's evaluation of archaeological and historical resources is general and 
has limited application as a planning and management tool. The final 
resource documentation will have to be prepared at a future date, based on 
more intensive site investigations. 

High potential areas are those areas which contain known archaeological sites, 
or could contain such sites. Parameters for these areas include: 1) locations of 
known archaeological sites; 2) reasonably well drained soils and soils 
associated with known sites: 3) areas within 150 meters of the 66 foot contour 
line around Lake Kanapaha basin; and 4) level areas above the floodplain and 
isolated knolls within the Hogtown Creek basin. 

Medium potential areas are defined as: 1) well drained high potential soils 150 
meters to 200 meters above the 66 foot contour interval; 2) higher ground in 
proximity to isolated water sources or sinks; 3) areas of moderate slope 
between the 62 and 66 foot contour levels around Lake Kanapaha; and 4) areas 
of moderate slope within the creek basin north of the NW 22nd Street. Again, 
these parameters are based on the distribution of the known sites in the area. 

All other areas are presently considered to have low potential for cultural 
resources based on the presence of wetlands, steep slopes, distance of over 200 
meters from the 66 foot contour, and flatwoods areas. 

There are at least 23 known archaeological sites in proximity to the Project 
Site. These have primarily been identified as a result of surface inspection. No 
formal surveys have been completed in the area of concern, so a survey would 
undoubtedly reveal additional sites, particularly in proximity to Lake 
Kanapaha and the prairie south of Oaks Mall. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville, FL 26 Management Plan 



Recommendations 

The DHR guidelines recommend an intensive systematic subsurface survey 
prior to developments which utilize state funding. Subsurface testing will be 
required at 25 meter intervals in high potential areas, 50 meter intervals in 
medium potential areas, and a ten percent sample of low potential areas. An 
assessment of significant sites will also have to be completed. Significant sites 
will require mitigation of impacts through preservation or data recovery 
excavations. Since this project is partially funded by a state grant, DHR will 
request compliance with these guidelines in order to obtain permitting for the 
project. In addition, any cultural resources assessment surveys of the Project 
Site will be submitted to DHR for comment and review prior to any land 
clearing or ground disturbing activities. 

Additionally, where properties within the proposed greenway are identified as 
containing a high potential for archaeological or paleontological significance, 
development of greenway facilities will proceed in a manner that is consistent 
with City and County Comprehensive Plan policies and land development 
regulations for protection of these resources. 

Once an area of the project site has been identified as potentially having 
achaeological resources, a cost-effective scientific investigation to evaluate the 
extent and significance of the archaeological resources must be completed, 
before an irreversible action, such as looting, is allowed to take place. 

Public disclosure of archaeological sites prior to the establishment of protective 
measures leads to the pilferation and destruction of the site and possibly the 
only information about its history. Therefore, when valuable archaeological 
resources are identified or suspected prior to or during an investigation, the 
information shall be handled with appropriate protection of its confidentiality, 
and provided only on a need-to-know basis to the state archaeologist, property 
owner, project sponsor, or public agency official responsible for project 
approval. In addition, the site's specific location and other pertinent 
information shall be omitted in public documents until protective measures are 
in effect. 

This Master Development and Management Plan supports the provision of 
protective measures for cultural resources by requiring that the collection of 
artifacts or the disturbance of archaeological and historic sites on the Project 
Site is prohibited unless prior authorization has been obtained from the 
Department of State, Division of Historical Resources. 

In addition to, and notwithstanding, the above protective measures, all 
applicable policies contained in the respective City and County Comprehensive 
Plans and all applicable land development regulations of the City and County, 
respectively, shall be followed, as required by law. 



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CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS 

Several cultural and environmental programs are already in existence within 
the Project Site. It is anticipated that these existing programs will be expanded 
and improved, and new programs initiated to take advantage of the unique 
resources within the Hogtown Creek basin. The existing programs include: 

Ring Park : A 20-acre linear park located in the northern portion of the Project 
Site, and acquired by the City in the mid 1980's. This facility parallels the 
creek just downstream from Glen Springs. The City Department of Cultural 
and Nature Operations offers environmental education programs for adults and 
children, as well as passive resource-based recreation activities for park 
visitors. 

Loblolly Environmental Education Facility : An 1 1 -acre community facility 
located in the middle of the Project Site, and acquired by the City in 1990. The 
Facility is currently being renovated by the City and is scheduled by the City 
Department of Cultural and Nature Operations, and will offer environmental 
education programs and interactive learning exhibits for families and children. 

Kanapaha Botanical Gardens : A 40-acre facility located in the southern 
portions of the Project Site, this facility was opened in 1978. The Gardens are 
operated by the non-profit North Florida Botanical Society, which offers 
education programs in cooperation with the Santa Fe Community College. It 
is the second largest botanical garden in the state, and the most varied garden 
in Florida. 

MAN-MADE FACILITIES /LAND USE EVALUATION 

Land use and zoning in and around the greenway corridor is predominantly 
residential, conservation and agricultural, with areas of mixed use commercial, 
high density residential and institutional. The Project Site corridor is bisected 
and bordered by several arterial and collector roadways, which provide access to 
local neighborhoods, shopping centers and schools. 

The most significant negative impacts experienced by environmental features in 
the Project Site, have been and will most likely continue to be: roadways, 
parking lots, illegal dumping of trash, leaks from underground hazardous 
materials and storage tanks, leaks and spills from industrial and commercial 
hazardous material sites and hazardous material handling activities. 
Residential homes near the Project Site also result in significant impacts, 
including the clearing of riparian vegetation; pesticide, herbicide, and fertilizer 
runoff"; erosion and sedimentation; uncontrolled cats and dogs; noise; 
introduction of exotic species of flora and fauna; septic tank releases and 
sewage pipe leaks. (Source: Gainesville Department of Community 
Development, 1991; Cooper 1978) In the past 15 years, the corridor has 
become more popular with both pedestrians and bicyclists. Because of this 
increased popularity, and the inability to control the use and access, these 
users have caused significant impact and degradation in various areas along 
the corridor. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 28 Management Plan 



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POTENTIAL AND KNOWN POLLUTION SITES /DEGRADED LANDSCAPES 
The Project Site contains several sites that have been degraded by poor 
management of manufacturing processes, leakage of toxic waste, disposal of 
trash and debris, or have been altered by human activity to the degree that 
natural ecosystems are impacted. These site locations are identified on Map 9. 

Cabot Carbon /Koppers Superfund Site 

This site is 1.5 miles east of the Project Site. Activity at the site has 
contaminated the surficial aquifer and soil. Compounds found in the 
groundwater and soils include phenols, terpines. creosote, copper, chromium, 
and arsenic. Pentachlorophenol was also found in the soils. 

Pollution, including elevated phenol levels, is apparent in the northern 
stretches of Hogtown Creek, with the water exhibiting an odor, slight color, 
and foam. Cabot Corporation and Beazer East, Inc. are currently designing 
EPA-approved methods for cleaning up the site. Within the coming year, it is 
anticipated that soil and groundwater remediation will begin. Further study is 
necessary to determine the downstream extent of contamination within 
Hogtown Creek, and the expected degree and timing of improvements to the 
creek due to the site remediation. (Source: Alachua Conservation Trust, 1992; 
Gainesville Department of Community Development, 1991; Beazer East, Inc., 
1992) 

Farmer's Mutual Exchang e 

A warehouse fire in 1984 contaminated soils and the surficial aquifer. 
Monitoring is currently underway to determine the condition of the aquifer in 
the area. (Source: Gainesville Department of Community Development. 1991) 

Bailev's Branch /Gainesville Mall 

This tributary of Hogtown Creek flows in a culvert under the parking lot of the 
Gainesville Mall, emptying into Hogtown Creek at Tax Parcel 9003-004-001. 
Bailey's Branch has been contaminated by a leaking underground storage tank 
from a gasoline station approximately 1/4 mile southeast of the Project Site. 
The source of the contamination has been terminated. A clean-up plan for the 
contamination has not yet been completed. (Source: Alachua Conservation 
Trust, 1992). 

The Consulting Team also notes that a sizable amount of trash and debris has 
been discarded and washed from the Gainesville Mall parking lot, through a 
metal fence, and into Hogtown Creek. This trash includes more than 100 
shopping carts, tires, and other assorted debris. 

Shands Swamp 

A field investigation in 1991 discovered the presence of a large accumulation of 
trash and debris just south of Raintree Subdivision on a City-owned Greenway 
property (Tax Parcel 6439-001-0000). The accumulation appears to be the 
result of deposition from upstream sources, and is probably non-hazardous. 
(Source: Gainesville Department of Community Development, 1992). 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 29 Management Plan 



Potential and Known Pollution Sites 

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Westgate Shopping Center Area 

This shopping center is located in a filled section of the Hogtown Creek 
floodplain. The creek has been channelized and is in need of restoration. The 
City's stormwater management master plan for the creek proposes 
modifications for this area. (Source: Alachua Conservation Trust, 1992) 

Sugarfoot Prairie 

Sporadic dumping of trash has occurred at various locations near and within 
Hogtown Prairie. (Source: Gainesville Department of Community 
Development. 1992) 

University of Florida Landfill 

The University formerly operated a landfill west of the main campus. 
Contamination by several organic compounds (benzene, chlorobenzene, vinyl 
chloride, clomethane, and dichlorobenzene) has been detected at an upgradient 
off-site well. The Florida Department of Environmental Regulation (FDER) 
plans to conduct an investigation to determine the source of the 
contamination, and will then begin enforcement action against the responsible 
parties for remediation. A consultant retained by UF is implementing a 
groundwater monitoring plan (Source: Gainesville Department of Community 
Development, 1991) 

Interstate 75 

The interstate bisects Sugarfoot Hammock and crosses Hogtown Creek. It is a 
source of noise and air pollution, results in the death of thousands of animals 
each year by road kills, represents a visual eyesore, and contributes to 
degradation of water quality from surface runoff. The interstate is presently 
being widened from four to six lanes. (Alachua Conservation Trust, 1992) 

Dam on Lake Kanapaha 

In 191 1, Hogtown Prairie was diked off from Lake Kanapaha. The stonework 
dam, which runs roughly east to west, is about five feet high at its highest 
point. Although much of the dam has fallen, the higher land under the dike 
still separates the two water bodies during low water periods. During high 
water periods, the dike does not impede water flow. There are no plans to alter 
or remove the dike. (Source: Dickinson and Wayne 1990) 

Split Rock 

There are a number of concrete and flint rock structures located around an 
active sink hole near Hogtown Prairie. They consist of steps, foundations, and 
walls which were apparently built in the early 20th century for recreational 
use. Their future and significance has not been determined. (Source: 
Dickinson and Wayne 1990) 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

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Kanapaha Water Reclamation Plant 

Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU) operates the Kanapaha Plant on the 
western side of Lake Kanapaha. The Plant provides tertiary treatment to meet 
drinking water quality standards, and injects the treated effluent into the deep 
aquifer. The Plant has a permit to discharge excess effluent to Lake Kanapaha, 
which has occurred periodically in the past (Source: Alachua Conservation 
Trust, 1992). GRU has recently approved plans to divert a portion of the 
effluent to provide irrigation. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

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PROJECT GOALS 



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PROJECT GOALS 

Based on the t±iorough evaluation of environmental and cultural features of 
the Project Site, the Consulting Team and Gainesville City staff worked with an 
appointed citizens advisory group, through a planning and design chare tte to 
define appropriate goals and objectives for the proposed Hogtown Creek 
Greenway. The following mission statement for the proposed greenway was 
developed by the Consulting Team and the citizens advisory group: 

To preserve and protect the riparian lands and waters of Hogtown Creek through 
the development of a multi-objective community greenway system. The greenway 
will protect lands adjacent to the primary creek channel and on selected tributaries 
Jromjiirther urban encroachment and development, will provide areas for 
stormwater management and flood control will offer improved access to the 
unique environs of Hogtown Creek so that local residents and tourists can 
participate in passive recreation environmental education and other appropriate 
social activities, wRl offer the community with a non-motorized north-south linkage 
that can serve alternative transportation purposes, and wUl promote economic 
redevelopment and revitalization of areas throughout west GainesvUle. 

The following goal statements, all of which were developed at the design 
charette with the exception of the Cultural Resource Goal which was suggested 
by the Division of Historical Resources, more clearly articulate the mission 
statement and vision for the Hogtown Creek Greenway. 

ENVIRONMENTAL GOAL 

To protect and improve the Hogtown Creek creek channel, her tributaries and 
flood prone areas from encroachment of incompatible uses and urban 
development. To establish policies and programs that preserve, restore and 
protect the ecological functions and sensitive species of the Hogtown Creek and 
its environment. 

TRANSPORTATION GOAL 

To establish an effective, continuous, multi-modal, non-motorized alternative 
transportation network for the Hogtown Creek Greenway and surrounding 
community. 

RECREATION GOAL 

To provide ecologically sound, accessible and appropriate recreation. 

HEALTH AND FITNESS GOAL 

To provide ecologically sound, accessible and appropriate opportunities for 
pursuit of health and fitness. 

QUALITY OF LIFE GOAL 

To provide a community commons where people can interact peacefully with 
each other and with nature. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 33 Management Plan 



PUBLIC ACCESS/PRIVACY GOAL 

To provide the maximum public access possible to Hogtown Creek and its 
environs while maintaining appropriate protection for privacy and the 
environment. 

SAFETY AND SECURITY GOAL 

To provide a safe and secure recreation and transportation network for the 
people who use and live along the greenway, and the wildlife that inhabit 
greenway lands. 

EDUCATION GOAL 

To increase public awareness of the natural environment and the responsible 
use of such resources through public access and educational programming. 

OPERATIONS AND MANAGEMENT GOAL 

To ensure efficient and ecologically sound long term operations and 
management practices consistent with community greenway goals. 

FINANCIAL GOAL 

To ensure adequate on-going financial support in order to meet the goals and 
objectives of the greenway. 

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT GOAL 

To capitalize on and celebrate the quantitative and non-quantitative economic 
benefits of the greenway for the entire community. 

CULTURAL RESOURCE GOAL 

To protect and ensure professional interpretation of significant cultural 
resources. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 34 Management Plan 



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PROPERTY ACQUISITION 



PROPERTY ACQUISITION 

The Hogtown Creek Greenway project is comprised of 64 parcels of land, forty- 
four of which remain to be acquired (See Map 10 and 11). According to the 
Alachua Conservation Trust (1992). there are three categories of properties that 
are to be acquired within the project study area: 1) vacant, developed land; 2) 
vacant land of marginal development value due to flood elevations or poor 
access; and 3) developed land that needs to be acquired to provide greenway 
connectivity. 

The City of Gainesville and Alachua County have structured a "Multi- Party 
Acquisition Agreement" to pursue the land acquisition of required parcels of 
land. The Alachua Conservation Trust is under contract to provide certain 
services to the City and County to assist with acquisition. It is the objective of 
this project to acquire sufficient properties to ensure connectivity throughout 
the greenway. It is recognized, however, that not all properties will be acquired 
through this program due to the possibility of unwilling sellers, title problems, 
lack of sufficient funds, environmental problems, or other reasons. Some 
properties are crucial to acquire for the viability of the project, while others are 
less essential (See Map 11). 

Some parcels are proposed to be acquired in fee simple, while a less than fee 
interest, such as an easement, may be acquired on other parcels. The FCT 
grant application recommends an "interest to be acquired" for each parcel. 
However, the ownership of these properties may change in the process of 
negotiating for each parcel. 

The value of some parcels to the greenway project may not adequately be 
reflected using the appraisal requirements of 18-1.006, F. A. C. Therefore, 
certain parcels may be acquired using alternative valuation methods, and will 
be donated to the State consistent with Section 253.025, F. S. after they have 
been acquired by ACT or the City. 

The following criteria have been generally used to establish priorities for 
greenway parcel acquisition: 

Willing Seller - These persons increase the likelihood that a parcel can be 
acquired under terms that are favorable to the greenway manager. Unwilling 
sellers typically extract exorbitant concessions or selling prices for their 
property. 

Outstanding Feature(s) - Parcels which possess outstanding features such as 
significant natural areas or important historical structures can play an 
important role in giving a greenway an identity, and increase the popularity of 
the greenway. Also, acquiring such parcels increases the likelihood that the 
significant features on the parcel will be restored and/or preserved for future 
generations. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 35 Management Plan 



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Linkage - Parcels that physically link existing greenway segments, or provide 
lateral links to important sites such as schools, residential and commercial 
areas, and environmentally significant areas, are extremely important in 
achieving the continuity objective of greenways. Continuity enhances wildlife 
habitat (by providing wildlife corridors linking larger habitats) and trail 
establishment (by allowing the greenway trail to avoid relatively dangerous and 
I inconvenient road by-passes). 

, Development Threat - Parcels that are threatened by development incompatible 

I with the greenway (or are a threat to general environmental conservation 

objectives) should be prioritized. 

I Multiple Use - Parcels that potentially provide multiple public benefits without 

causing such problems as environmental degradation or negative impacts to a 
neighborhood, should be prioritized. 

Following acquisition, the property will be subject to a detailed environmental 
survey (including plant, animal, and habitat inventories) to establish baseline 
conditions and additional information to determine the appropriate use of the 
property. In addition, a surveyor will be employed to establish property 
boundaries and other features such as flood elevations, and utility and road 
rights-of-way and easements. 

This Master Development and Management Plan offers a listing of those 
properties prioritized for acquisition by the Multi-Party Acquisition Agreement 
and subsequent Acquisition Plan. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 38 Management Plan 



RECOMMENDED GREENWAY 

FACILITIES 



RECOMMENDED GREENWAY FACILITIES 

In order to develop the Hogtown Creek Greenway in a manner that meets the 
goals and needs of the community, the City will proceed with development of 
the following facilities. These facilities represent a compilation of the 
"Preferred Design Concept" that was generated by design charette participants 
in April 1993 (See Map 13. page HI). 

NW 23RD AVE., AT GAINESVILLE MALL, TO ELKS CLUB LODGE 

This segment of the greenway is proposed to extend westerly along NW 23rd 
Avenue from the Gainesvillle Mall Activity Center, across the bridge at 
Hogtown Creek to the Elks Club Lodge. Currently, this road does not have 
proper signage, appropriate improvements for cycling, or contiguous sidewalk 
facilities on the south side of NW 23rd Avenue that interlinks with the Elks 
Club Lodge. On-street bicycle facilities will be a long term objective for the 
County along this segment of the road. In the short term, the bike route and 
greenway logo signs, as well as the extension of sidewalks, will be installed 
from the Elks Club Lodge to the Gainesville Mall Activity Center in order to 
provide safe passage between these two destination points of the proposed 
greenway corridor. 

As the intersection of NW 23rd Avenue and NW 16th Street is a controlled 
intersection, it is the most logical point to cross the roads for accessing the 
Elks Club Lodge or the Gainesville Mall. 

One of the most challenging aspects of this segment of the proposed greenway 
will be the needed acquisition of the Elks Club Lodge. This facility offers the 
City an opportunity to establish one of the greenway's trail heads that could 
provide cultural and environmental education programs, as was suggested 
during the Design Charette. The City is presently researching the structural 
condition of the buildings, demolition of the concrete pools surrounding Glen 
Springs, restoration of Glen Springs to its natural landscape, and the potential 
uses that the facilities could accommodate. These forms of improvements will 
require a financial commitment that is beyond the immediate scope of this 
project, and will be a long term objective for the City. 

In the interim, the Lodge will provide the City with parking, restrooms, 
pedestrian access to Alfred A. Ring Park and possibly serve as a greenway 
information center and/or headquarters for greenway maintenance personnel. 
The Lodge presently has approximately 80 parking spaces that will offer 
community residents, who do not live close enough to bike or walk to the 
greenway, with a northern point of access to the greenway system and Alfred A. 
Ring Park. Signs will be utilized at all trail heads and throughout the 
greenway for directional, regulatory and informative purposes (See Figure 1). 

Environmental restoration of the Elks Club Lodge landscape and the historic 
Glen Springs is required, irrespective of the decision to leave the buildings and 
structures intact. 



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GHS TO ELKS CLUB LODGE VIA NW 23RD AVENUE 

The Team notes that proposed greenway facilities along NW 23rd Avenue will 
establish a proposed connection to the Gainesville High School, via the 
existing facilities located along NW 16th Avenue. The greenway trail system 
will then offer students with a choice in travel from their neighborhood to 
school, serving a transportation function. Signs will be needed to direct 
students from the high school to greenway facilities. Additional greenway 
parking might also be available at the high school, and the Team recommends 
that the City negotiate necessary agreements to obtain access and use of 
appropriate parking spaces. 

GAINESVILLE HIGH SCHOOL TO ALFRED A. RING PARK 

From the High School to Ring Park, the Team notes that although sidewalks 
are provided along the north side of NW 16th Avenue to Ring Park, signs will be 
provided to direct students to the park and greenway system. 

ALFRED A. RING PARK 

The preferred design development approach for Ring Park includes a pedestrian 
only trail system through the park (See Figure 2, 3 and 4), as is presently 
developed. All connections to the park will support the pedestrian only 
designation, especially at NW 16th Avenue, where children on mountain bikes 
tend to access the park for recreational pursuits. A pedestrian /bicycle 
connection will need to be made to the Elks Club Lx)dge via the existing bridge 
spanning Glen Springs Run, to link travel and activities between these 
facilities. 

ELKS CLUB LODGE TO NW 22ND ST. VIA NW 23RD AVE. R.O.W. 

In order to interlink the Elks Club Lodge with Alfred A. Ring Park and the 
neighborhoods to the west, several improvements will have to be made for 
safety, security and access management purposes. From the Elks Club Lodge 
parking facilities a combination of multi-use trail (See Figure 5) and boardwalk 
(See Figure 6) facilities will have to be provided to connect with the existing 
Glen Springs Run bridge. At this point, railings will be required for the bridge. 
These railings will also need to be extended approximately 25 feet to the north 
and south of the bridge to provide safety and access control to the Glen 
Springs Run. From the south side of the bridge to the pedestrian entrance of 
Alfred A. Ring Park and to the park's NW 22nd Street entrance, via NW 23rd 
Avenue right-of-way, the existing mulch trails will be improved to the 10-foot 
wide, multi-use. off-road asphalt trail. 

This will enable trail users to utilize existing on-road and sidewalk facilities to 
interlink the Elks Club Lodge and Ring Park to those greenway parcels to the 
south and southwest. 

NW 16TH AVENUE TO NW 8TH AVENUE 

The segment of the proposed trail that begins at the intersection of NW 16th 
Avenue and Possum Creek will be accessed by the existing sidewalk facility 
located on NW 16th Avenue. Both the City and County Departments' of Public 
Works will require trail users to access this portion of the trail by utilizing the 

Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 41 Management Plan 



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existing sidewalk on the south side of NW 16th Avenue, via the at-grade 
crossings at the signalized intersections of NW 22nd Street and NW 34th 
Street. Once the trail is accessed from NW 16th Avenue, the trail system once 
again becomes a 10-foot wide, multi-use off-road asphalt trail, and meanders 
through the Possum Creek Open Space. This trail will follow the existing 
sanitary sewer easement, which is already cleared and is presently used by local 
residents. At the intersection of the sewer line and tributary streams of 
Possum Creek, the trail surface will need to be elevated either on a series of 12- 
foot wide, multi-use boardwalks, or if permitted, on earthen fill (See Figure 6). 

Continuing south, the multi-user trail will incorporate neighborhood trail 
connections to the Tanglewood Subdivision to the east and eventually intersect 
with the existing sidewalk facility located on the north side of NW 8th Avenue. 
At this intersection the existing sidewalk offers east/west travel along NW 8th 
Avenue (See Figure 7). 

Greenway facility development within the Possum Creek Open Space provides 
an opportunity to implement extensive environmental restoration of the 
floodplain landscape. This landscape is presently degraded by uncontrolled 
access and public use. Additionally, upstream urbanization of the Possum 
Creek watershed has resulted in deterioration and pollution of the main 
channel. The riverine configuration through this open space is braided as a 
result of constant flooding. Drainage culverts under NW 8th Avenue serve to 
impound stormwater in the open space, and downstream neighbors, south of 
NW 8th Avenue, are not supportive of an expansion of these culverts to permit 
improved stormwater flows. 

The City, along with its Public Works Department, will work extensively with 
the University of Florida and state agencies to define a design and management 
strategy for making improvements to this open space landscape. Stormwater 
detention facilities, in conjunction with habitat restoration, and greenway trail 
development could result in a re-ordering of public use and eventual 
restoration of this landscape. 

ALONG NW 8TH AVENUE TO NW 34TH STREET 

The Team has carefully considered all of the design options that are available 
for this segment of the greenway corridor. We are proposing that a two-way, 
off-road multi-use trail be constructed on the north side of NW 8th Avenue 
from Hogtown Creek to NW 34th Street (See Figure 7). This will require the 
extension of the box culverts under NW 8th Avenue to span Possum and 
Hogtown Creeks. This facility will intersect with the following proposed multi- 
use trails that extend northward to NW 16th Avenue and NW 22nd Street: 
1) the trail extending into the Tanglewood subdivision neighborhood at NW 
25th Terrace which extends to NW 16th Avenue, and 2) the combined 
boardwalk and trail system that extends through the Possum Creek Open 
Space to NW 16th Avenue. In addition, the City will examine the possibility of 
installing a wildlife-only underpass beneath NW 8th Avenue to facilitate safe 
passage of small mammals and other floodplain wildlife from the Possum Creek 
Open Space to destinations south of NW 8th Avenue. 

Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

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Since the completion of the Design Chare tte, an alternative design option to 
the NW 8th Avenue connection has been discussed for the purpose of 
enhancing the trail user's experience. This option primarily involves 
maintaining the existing sidewalk along NW 8th Avenue, but includes linking 
it to a multi-use boardwalk trail facility that will be located in the forest 
vegetation, approximately 100 to 200 feet north of NW 8th Avenue. This 
facility will, also, intersect with the three northbound trails as described in the 
preceding paragraph. Further analysis of this option could be developed during 
the implementation phase of this area. 

In order to continue south along the greenway, trail users will need to cross 
NW 8th Avenue at NW 34th Street intersection (See Figure 8). This is presently 
a controlled intersection, which also offers convenient access to Littlewood 
Elementary School. A potential crossing was evaluated at NW 31st Street, but 
due to lack of signalization at this time, it does not provide the safety benefits 
of the NW 34th Street intersection, even though that intersection has one of 
the highest accident rates in the City. Although it is recommended that people 
use the signalized intersection to cross NW 8th Avenue, there will still be the 
problem of people making mid-block crossings in non-designated crossing 
areas, primarily east of NW 31st Street. Because of the long "gap" time 
required to cross the road, and the characteristic high speed of automobiles 
using the road, crossing NW 8th Avenue at non-designated areas creates a 
potentially dangerous situation for trail users and motorists. Failure to offer 
the best crossing could increase the liability associated with this intersection 
and unnecessarily expose the City to additional risks. Currently, the City 
staff is researching the possibility of providing additional traffic signalization 
for NW 8th Avenue, other alternative means of providing access across NW 8th 
Avenue and controlling the speed of traffic. 

A potential underpass or overpass was evaluated for the NW 31st Street 
intersection; however, the at-grade option is being pursued until trail use 
increases to the point that conflicts warrant a re-evaluation of the crossing. It 
may then be easier to justify the expense of an overpass or underpass. This 
area also provides the opportunity for additional public parking for potential 
users who do not live close to the trail. Westside Park will serve as a trail head 
for the greenway. It currently provides enough parking to accommodate the 
greenway' s projected demand. Overflow parking will be available on the 
weekends at Littlewood Elementary School. Clear signage will be installed 
throughout this area to guide movement and inform users of the hazards of 
illegal crossing of NW 8th Avenue. 

NW 34TH ST. TO LOBLOLLY ENVIRONMENTAL ED. FACILITY 

From the intersection of NW 34th Street and NW 8th Avenue, the trail system 
will continue south as an off-road, multi-use asphalt trail and boardwalk 
system, between the western bank of Possum Creek and rear property lines of 
homes that front on NW 34th Street. This is a challenging landscape for trail 
development for a number of reasons. First, stormwater is normally 
impounded in a sizable wetland area, making it difficult to achieve a surface 
trail system. Second, private properties are relatively close to western bank of 
Possum Creek, meaning that routing options are limited. Finally, 

Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 49 Management Plan 



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PREFERRED SITE PLAN FOR LOBLOLLY AREA 

Hogtown Creek Greenwav 

GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 

LEGEND 

^■^ Hogtown Creek Greenway Boundary Line 
■ ^■H Multl-Purpose Trail 
iiiiiiii Boardwalk 



MARSH AREA PROPOSED AS A 
STORMWATER MANAGEMENT PROJECT 




FIGURE 8 



environmental sensitivity requires that trail development be balanced with 
restoration to ensure successful greenway implementation. 

As a result of the Design Charette, local property owners in this section 
(Hankins and Delaino) are currently negotiating with the Alachua 
Conservation Trust to sell their property to the City for greenway purposes. 
This sale would greatly improve the ability to achieve multiple objectives in this 
area. It allows the trail to be routed west of the creek channel, toward higher 
ground. The sale would enable the City to develop a proposed stormwater 
detention facility south of NW 8th Avenue and west of Possum Creek, which 
may result in a reduction in the size and location of detention berms along 
Hogtown Creek. Finally, the Team feels that this sale would permit a better 
connection to the Loblolly Environmental Education Facility, the next public 
facility along the proposed greenway route. 

As a major component of greenway facility development, a comprehensive 
program of environmental restoration will need to accompany facility 
development through this segment. This area has been degraded by abundant 
off- trail use. and it is expected that the designated greenway trail will 
encourage the majority of users to stay on the multi-user trail tread. 

At the Loblolly Environmental Education Facility, the trail will be routed so 
that it provides appropriate access to and through the facility. Some public 
parking, approximately 5 spaces, will be made available to serve the Center. In 
addition, the Gainesville Regional Transit System will be encouraged to provide 
a connection with the greenway at the regular stop near the Center. 

BLACK ACRES BIKE PATH 

An existing bicycle /pedestrian path links local residents with the existing 
sidewalks along the south side of ^AV 8th Avenue. A formal trail connection 
will need to be developed along NW 8th Avenue to improve this linkage. 
Additionally, improvements will be made to the trail surface and drainage 
structures along this pathway (See Figure 9) . These improvements will be 
provided through the development of a multi-use trail which will reduce trail 
maintenance and increase the pathways tread life. 

LOBLOLLY ENVIRONMENTAL ED. FACILITY TO WESTGATE S. C. 

From the Loblolly Environmental Education Facility, the trail continues south 
to Westgate Shopping Center. The Alachua Conservation Trust is currently 
working with owners of the Creekside Apartments to acquire land for the 
greenway trail. Trail development will require the installation of a 12-foot wide 
by 60-foot long bridge across a stormwater detention weir (See Figure 8 and 
10). Trail development will then be located on the southeast side of Hogtown 
Creek and connect with NW 34th Street. 

In addition, a comprehensive program of restoration will be required for the 
Hogtown Creek channel through this segment. Prior channelization of the 
creek bed has resulted in siltation and overgrowth of weeds and aquatic 
vegetation. The City has proposed restoration as part of the stormwater 
management plan for this area. 

Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 51 Management Plan 



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FENCING AND/OR VEGETATIVE BUFFER USED FOR 
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MULTI-USE TRAILS 



FIGURE 9 



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WESTGATE SHOPPING CENTER TO CREEKSIDE MALL 

At the intersection of NW 34th Street and Hogtown Creek, the trail will be 
routed beneath the existing roadway bridge, and up onto the south side of the 
channel, behind the commercial establishments in the Westgate Shopping 
Center (See Figure 11). Utilizing bridge underpasses as part of the trail system 
will require the establishment of additional security measures, such as 
installation of vandal -proof lighting and paint, provision of visual clear zones 
and elimination of any potential hiding or transient living spaces. Signs will 
be posted to indicate that the underpasses will be closed during heavy rains 
and to instruct users to use the controlled intersections to cross University 
Avenue. NW and SW 34th Street and SW 2nd Avenue. However, when heavy 
rains are not occurring the users will be discouraged from using the at-grade 
crossings. There are several available parking areas within the Center for 
greenway users. Due to the ease of access to the Project Site, it is probably 
unnecessary to designate specific areas for greenway parking within this 
segment of the proposed trail. 

From NW 34th Street, the trail will become a pedestrian /bicycle promenade, 
and it is hoped that re-development of the Westgate Shopping Center would 
occur so that buildings could be oriented toward Hogtown Creek. The 
promenade remains on the south and east side of the creek through the 
shopping center, under the University Avenue and SW 2nd Avenue bridges. At 
this point the trail will extend southerly along the east side of the Creek to 
provide access to the existing apartment complexes adjacent to the Creek and 
to establish a linkage to the University of Florida. In addition, the trail will 
cross Hogtown Creek over to Creekside Mall where the trail will continue 
southwest to Green Acres Park along a 10-foot wide multi-use trail (See Figure 
12). 

The concept of linking the trail system with Westgate Shopping Center provides 
an opportunity for economic re -development of the shopping center, and could 
create a popular destination point for local residents. 

CREEKSroE MALL TO NW 34TH ST. @ UNIV. OF FLORIDA 

South of Creekside Mall, the trail forks, with one leg heading south to Green 
Acres Park, and the other heading east to the University of Florida Campus. 
The latter is an important connection for students who live west of the 
campus, by offering opportunities for non- motorized, safe alternative 
transportation. 

This trail will be a 10-foot wide multi-use asphalt tread that extends south and 
intersect with a 12-foot by 50-foot long bridge that spans the Hogtown Creek 
channel to the west, thereby, providing a linkage to the University. The Team 
also recognizes that the presence of wetland landscape along this route means 
that a boardwalk system may be required to provide this connection in an 
ecologically sensitive manner (See Figure 6, page 46). 

This spur trail will terminate on SW 34th Street, either at Radio (Farm) Road, 
if appropriate, or simply at its connection with the sidewalks on SW 34th 
Street. 

Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 54 Management Plan 




STABILIZED (PLANTED) 



TYPICAL BRIDGE UNDERPASS 
FOR MULTI-USE TRAIL 



SCALE: 1/8' = 1'-0' 



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The Team expresses a great amount of concern over the long term fate of the 
Gopher Tortoise that is known to nest in landscapes south of Creekside Mall 
and southeast of Green Acres Park. Therefore, the City's greenway facility 
development objectives will adhere to the advice provided by the Florida Game 
and Fresh Water Fish Commission. Wild Things, and A. F. Clewell regarding 
protection of these nesting sites and education of the public. 

CREEKSIDE MALL TO GREEN ACRES PARK 

From Creekside Mall south, the trail remains a multi-use, 10-foot wide asphalt 
trail, and will meander through an open space landscape to the existing Green 
Acres Park. Currently, this park is naturalized and has limited access. There 
are no public parking facilities provided at this City facility. The trail will be 
routed through the park in a manner that is most appropriate, given the 
existing activities, and continue south to Sugarfoot Prairie. 

GREEN ACRES PARK TO SUGARFOOT PRAIRIE 

From Green Acres Park, the trail tread will most likely change from an on-grade 
multi-use asphalt surface to a multi-use boardwalk trail. This determination 
will have to be made in the field, and will be based on the presence of wetlands 
and sensitivity of the local environment to greenway trail development 
activities. 

Two separate trail routes will be created at this point: one that heads south to 
Forest Park, and the second which will head west to the Oaks Mall. These are 
more thoroughly described in the following sections. 

Because Sugarfoot Prairie is so isolated and unique within the context of an 
urban landscape, this boardwalk, while providing controlled access to most of 
this area, will provide frequent pull over areas for observation of the 
surrounding landscape, coupled with a series of wayside exhibits. 
Furthermore, this section of the greenway will provide a special self-education 
opportunity for environmentally curious greenway users. 

GREEN ACRES PARK TO OAKS MALL 

From Green Acres Park, and heading west to the Oaks Mall, the multi-use trail 
will turn from on-surface asphalt to boardwalk and then back to on-surface 
asphalt. It may be possible to bench the trail into existing berms which were 
built to protect adjacent residential neighborhoods from flooding. Lx)cating the 
trail facilities on the south and west sides of the berms utilizes the berm as a 
privacy and noise buffer for the adjacent neighborhoods (See Figure 13). 
However, an evaluation of proposed boardwalk locations in relation to adjacent 
neighborhoods should be developed prior to their final location. Charette 
participants recommended that a long boardwalk with observation platform be 
extended into the prairie landscape so that users might have an opportunity to 
view the interior landscape. Before this is accomplished, the City will conduct 
a thorough environmental evaluation of the impacts such a boardwalk would 
have on interior species wildlife. In addition, the survival of Clear Lake 
depends upon the free-flow of water between the Sugarfoot Prairie and the 
Lake. This flow currently and historically has taken place through the culvert 

Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gaines\ille. FL 57 Management Plan 




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and pump housing under Clear Lake Drive. Therefore, the appropriate trail 
facilities will be planned and utilized so as not to adversely affect this water 
flow and the survival of Clear Lake. 

North and west of the prairie, the trail system will be linked to existing gravel 
and unimproved roads, in order to parallel the western edge of the prairie. 
Eventually, these roads connect to SW 62nd Boulevard, where a small trail 
head will be built. From this location, a short walk or bike ride will link the 
greenway user to the Oaks Mall or the unique community resource of 
Terwilliger Park, across SW 62nd Boulevard from the proposed trail head. 

SUGARFOOT PRAIRIE TO FOREST PARK 

From Green Acres Park heading south, along the southeastern edge of the 
prairie, the greenway trail will be primarily a multi-use boardwalk through the 
wetland areas, and an on-surface multi-use asphalt trail on higher land. At 
SW 20th Avenue, the Alachua County Department of Public Works would not 
support an at-grade crossing within the guardrails at the SW 20th Avenue 
bridge. Due to the heavy volume of traffic that exists on SW 20th Avenue, 
there would be very few gaps provided for crossing the road. Therefore, an on- 
grade crossing anywhere other than signalized intersections could not be 
justified. The Department of Public Works will require the trail to extend east, 
parallel to SW 20th Avenue, to the SW 43rd Street signalized intersection. 
After crossing the intersection, the trail will enter Forest Park and continue 
through to a mid -point of the park's west property line where the trail will 
cross Hogtown Creek by bridge into the Project Site. 

Another alternative to be considered, in addition to the at-grade crossing at 
signalized intersections, is an overpass. The expense of such a facility may be 
justified due to the danger and potential liability of trail users attempting on- 
grade crossings at unauthorized points along SW 20th Avenue. Because of the 
bridge's low clearance and the creek's consistently high water levels, it was 
determined that an underpass at the bridge would not be feasible. 

Presently. Forest Park does not provide public parking. However with future 
park development, the park could potentially serve as a trail head and provide 
vehicular parking for trail users. 

Trail users to the west of the Project Site, along SW 20th Avenue or SW 62nd 
Boulevard, will use the at-grade crossing at the SW 62nd Street signalized 
intersection and the existing on-road bicycle facilities to access the Project 
Site. For the safety of the trail users, facilities will be provided to 
accommodate pedestrians and bicyclist along both sides of SW 20th Avenue 
between the SW 62nd Boulevard and SW 43rd Street intersections (See Figure 
14). These proposed facilities will include improvements to the existing bridge. 
A thorough study of these SW 20th Avenue facilities will have to be conducted 
by the City to determine the safest and most efficient route for the trail. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 59 Management Plan 



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SW 20TH AVENUE TO 1-75 

From SW 20th Avenue the multi-use off-road trail continues south where it 
intersects with Interstate 75. Despite the fact that additional widening is 
occurring along this stretch of the interstate highway, no provisions have been 
made to accommodate potential pedestrian access. Several options exist for 
crossing the interstate: 1) build an overpass across the highway; 2) terminate 
the trail north of the interstate bridges and provide a closed loop trail that will 
direct trail users back toward SW 20th Avenue, where parallel facilities will 
then direct users over the existing interstate roadway bridge; 3) build a multi- 
user trail parallel along the east side of the interstate within the powerline 
right-of-way, coordinate the trail with the planned roadway extension of SW 
62nd Boulevard to SW 40th Boulevard (identified in the Metropolitan 
Transportation Planning Organization's 2015 Needs Plan), and make use of the 
existing SW 20th Avenue roadway bridge that crosses the interstate highway. 
All of these options will be further explored to determine appropriate costs, 
efficiency of connections and desire of greenway users (See Figure 15). 

Currently, the SW 20th Avenue (Humpback Road) interstate bridge is too 
narrow to permit safe, shared crossing of the interstate. If the preferred option 
is to use this bridge, it will be necessary either to upgrade the structure or 
build a parallel facility for bicycle and pedestrian use. The Alachua County 
Public Works Department supports widening of this overpass to accommodate 
pedestrian and bicycle traffic. 

A tract of land that borders this area north of the designated greenway parcels 
(used as a borrow pit and fill site during the construction of 1-75) currently 
supports a series of dirt bike trails. The City is currently considering to open 
discussions with this landowner and local dirt bike clubs to designate this 
piece of land for this use. and design sufficient dirt bike courses so that this 
use will occur at this location and not in the more environmentally sensitive 
areas throughout the greenway corridor. 

SW 20TH AVENUE TO OAKS MALL 

From SW 20th Avenue, on-road bike facilities, in the form of a two-way bike 
route or bike lanes, should be added to the existing sidewalk facility along SW 
62nd Avenue, to improve access between Forest Park and the Oaks Mall and 
Terwilliger School. The intersection of SW 20th Avenue and SW 62nd Avenue 
is currently controlled by a traffic signal. 

1-75 TO KANAPAHA BOTANICAL GARDENS 

Depending on how 1-75 is crossed, the off- road trail is envisioned as continuing 
south, along the southeast side of Lake Kanapaha and Hogtown Prairie, to the 
Kanapaha Botanical Gardens. This is a vast, environmentally sensitive, 
unique and spectacular landscape. Greenway facility development through this 
landscape will need to be carefully routed to avoid impacting this ecosystem 
(See Figure 16). Strategically placed loop trails will be designed to offer the 
user an opportunity to get closer to certain landscape features. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 61 Management Plan 



SECTION 



PLAN VIEW 




POWERLINE EASEMENT 

INTERSTATE 75 OVERPASS 
AT HOGTOWN CREEK 



/ POTENTIAL MULTI-USE 
ACCESS VIA 
POWERLINE EASEMENT 

TO ARCHER ROAD 




SCALE: 1'= 100'-0" 



FIGURE 15 



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Because of the possible limited use of horse trails within this area of the 
greenway parallel trail treads are proposed for bikers, hikers and horseback 
riders that are kept within a well defined corridor of travel. These separated 
treads should alleviate multi-user conflicts, and allow different user groups to 
experience the landscape at a measurable pace, without increasing erosion. 

This area of the project offers a tremendous opportunity for eco-tourism 
activity through coordinated wayside exhibits, group-led interpretive programs, 
and other special events designed to extoll the virtues of this landscape. The 
Kanapaha Botanical Gardens should be an integral component of this eco- 
tourism effort, as it is already a regionally significant attraction. 

The Botanical Gardens currently provide some public parking to accommodate 
greenway users. However, additional parking facilities will be provided to serve 
user needs when the gardens are closed (See Figure 17). It is anticipated by the 
County Department of Public Works, the Botanical Gardens and the Team that 
a new entrance road and parking facility, that is accessed via Archer Road, will 
be located to complement the garden's existing access and parking area. In 
addition, it will serve as the southern terminus of the greenway while 
minimizing environmental and aesthetic impacts. The proposed access from 
Archer Road to the Botanical Gardens will also provide an excellent linkage 
opportunity with the Archer to Gainesville Rails Trail project, which has been 
proposed to utilize the existing power line easements and an abandoned 
railway corridor along SW Archer Road. 

GREENWAY IMPROVEMENTS WEST OF KANAPAHA BOT. GARD. 

Proposed greenway improvements west of the Kanapaha Botanical Gardens will 
provide enhancements to the greenway system as well as linkages with SW 
75th Street and SW 24th Avenue. These proposed improvements consist of: 
1) a linkage through the Botanical Gardens from the southern terminus of the 
greenway to SW 63rd Boulevard; 2) a linkage from SW 63rd Boulevard at its 
entrance to the Botanical Gardens north along Stagecoach Road to SW 24th 
Avenue; 3) trails into the Lake Kanapaha area from SW 63rd Boulevard, or 
Stagecoach Road to SW 75th Street and Kanapaha Park via utility easements 
and/or SW 41st Place. 

While not part of the original Project Site as approved by the Florida 
Communities Trust, these improvements will provide desirable linkages and 
enhancements to the overall project once the primary improvements are 
installed on the Project Site from the east side of Lake Kanapaha to the 
Botanical Gardens, as shown in this Master Plan report. Following or 
concurrent with the construction of these improvements, the County will work 
with the City to provide optimal linkages to SW 75th Street and SW 24th 
Avenue utilizing the recommended or other alternate routes. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development &l 

Gainesville. FL 64 Management Plan 



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TRAIL HEAD FACILITIES AT KANAPAHA BOTANICAL GARDENS 

Hogtown Creek Greenway 

GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 



LEGEND 

^ -i MULTI-USE TRAIL 

iiiiii MULTI-USE BOARDWALK 



FIGURE 17 



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KANAPAHA BOX. GARDENS & WEST SmE OF LAKE KANAPAHA 

This area, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens and t±ie west side of Lake Kanapaha, 
was discussed by the Team as being possible good locations for incorporating 
an observation tower amongst the live oaks, enabling visitors to view the 
ecosystem of the lake without disturbing the wildlife (See Figure 18). However, 
the location of an observation tower will require additional analysis of the 
entire Lake Kanapaha area to determine the most qualified site for such a 
structure. 

STAGECOACH ROAD TO SW 75TH STREET 

Charette participants advocated a connection from Stagecoach Road to SW 
75th Street and Lake Kanapaha Park via SW 41st Place. This is likely an 
overland connection through available utility easements and publicly owned 
park lands. Kanapaha Park could also serve as a trail head for the southern 
terminus of the Project Site, and once completed will offer ample parking for 
greenway users. 

ALONG TOWER ROAD TO ARCHER ROAD 

The neighboring subdivisions of Haile Plantation, Kenwood, Valwood, Green 
Leaf, etc., offer an excellent source of greenway users for the Hogtown Creek 
Greenway. Therefore, the Team recommends a formal connection be made 
along SW 41st Place between SW 63rd Boulevard and SW 75th Street. 

Sidewalks and bike lanes along SW 75th Street will also provide linkage to 
Kimball Wiles School and the proposed Middle School. An existing trails 
system already exists behind the elementary school which may provide some 
linkage opportunities with Kanapaha Park and the Project Site. 

Finally, the concept of Park and Bike, or Bike and Ride was thoroughly 
discussed during the charette. The City is considering providing facilities that 
allow cyclists to store their bikes in lockers at certain transit stops, or provide 
an opportunity to load their bikes onto busses. This will increase the efficiency 
of transportation within the community and offer local residents a choice in 
travel. 

SW 75TH STREET TO 1-75 ALONG SW 24TH AVENUE 

In completing the final loop of the greenway system, consideration will be given 
to adding sidewalks and bike lanes along SW 24th Avenue (Humpback Road) so 
that greenway users can effectively loop back north to Forest Park and other 
destinations in the community. 

Charette participants also discussed a possible connection off of SW 24th 
Avenue to Hogtown Prairie and Haile Sink. This is the only area of the 
greenway that was considered by charette participants for possible equestrian 
trails (See Figure 19). The Team recommends that if this is desired, it could be 
best accomplished though a program group-led tour that will be sponsored by 
the City or another agency. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 66 Management Plan 




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OTHER RECOMMENDED FACILITIES 

Throughout the development of the Hogtown Creek Greenway, a number of 
other facilities, in addition to trails, will be developed to maximize safe and 
compatible use of the environment and to enhance the interrelationships 
between the public greenway corridor and adjacent private properties. 

GREENWAY SIGNAGE 

The City of Gainesville will need to install a comprehensive system of signage 
throughout the proposed greenway. This will include the following types of 
signs: 

Informational : orients users to their position within the trail system (i.e. "You 
are here") provides an overview of the types of facilities within the greenway 
that are open to the public, programs and activities available, and describes 
routes or mode of travel required to reach these facilities. Also, these signs will 
include approximate distances and time of travel anticipated to reach certain 
destinations. Because these signs will be located at all major entrances to the 
greenway, they will also be used to recognize those parcels that were purchased 
with funds from the Florida Communities Trust, the City of Gainesville and, 
or, Alachua County. 

Directional : provides users with instructions regarding their bearing and route 
of travel. Most directional signage is in the form of graphic symbols 
(pictographs) and brief descriptions or listings. For example, directional 
signage will include arrows that indicate a heading (direction of travel), and 
descriptive text such as "this way," "keep to the right," or "south, one-mile." 

Regulatorv : describes the governing laws and regulations that apply within tJie 
trail, such as permitted uses, hours of operation/accessibility, speed limit, 
allowable activities, and legal requirements for use. Regulatory signs must be 
uniform and standard in terms of size, location and information. All 
regulatory signs should have black lettering on white reflective background. 
Regulatory information should not conflict in any way with other components 
of the signage program, or vice-versa. 

Warning : used to caution trail users of various hazardous conditions, such as 
sharp curves in the trail, slippery bridges, roadway crossings, steep downhill or 
uphill conditions, blind intersections, changes in trail surface condition, and 
other related warnings about environmental conditions of the greenway. All 
warning signage will be signs of uniform size and shape, located a minimum of 
50 feet in advance of the condition that the trail user is approaching, and 
labeled with black lettering on a reflective yellow background. 

Educational : also termed interpretive signage, it is used to describe the unique 
qualities or significance of natural or cultural features along the greenway. 
Educational signage provides the user with specific information about the 
features, such as age, habitat, historical relevance or specific relation to 
humankind. 

Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 69 Management Plan 



Festival : specialized type of trail signage that is used to commemorate special 
events and holidays, or to add accent, color and decoration. Festival signage 
I ' usually offers limited information about a specific event. This type comes in 

many different forms, from cloth banners, to flags, to specially created pole- 
mounted hard surface signs. 

Because much of the Hogtown Creek Greenway will be designed and built to 
support bicycle usage, and due to the fact the City anticipates using 

I I transportation funds to build portions of the project, the City will be using 

I ' AASHTO standards, and the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices 

(MUTCD) as the specifications for signage throughout the project. These 

I I standards can be supplemented with a specially created signage system for the 

' greenway, as illustrated in Figure 1 . 

Greenway Log o: A greenway logo will be created for the Hogtown Creek 
J j Greenway. This could by achieved by the City sponsoring a community-wide 

competition to develop an appropriate logo for the greenway. This has been 
I successfully accomplished in cities like Raleigh, High Point and Charlotte, 

North Carolina, and most recently in Knoxville. Tennessee. A logo design 
competition offers an opportunity to have local citizens involved in 
establishing the greenway, and will further serve to publicize the project to 
those citizens who have not yet heard of the project. The Team will agree to 
assist the City with the execution of the competition. 

I I LIGHTING OF GREENWAY FACILITIES 

As a general rule, and in compliance with the Hours of Operation for the 
greenway, as described in the Greenway Safety and Security section of this 
I report, the greenway will not be lighted with the exception of a few select 

^ locations. Portions of the greenway that would be appropriate for pedestrian 

scale lighting include: 

' ' Westgate Shopping Center - due to the nighttime activities in this area, 

additional pedestrian scale lighting will be needed for the proposed trail from 
j j NW 34th Street to Creekside Mall. This will include lighting the underpasses 

I or bridges in this area of the project. 

I Creekside Mall to University of Florida - again, after dark, if 24-hour usage is 

anticipated along this segment of the greenway, pedestrian scale lighting will 
be needed. This greenway segment also links several apartment complexes that 
I will benefit from having lighted access to the University, and Creekside Mall. 

The lighting of greenway trails and facilities, comes additional responsibilities 
for maintenance, police/park officer patrol and emergency response. Lighted 
I I areas will also be equipped with emergency (911) phone systems, to promote 

safety and enable better response by law enforcement personnel. Specific types 
j of lighting fixtures, and the location of these fixtures throughout the greenway 

I I is a site plan issue, and will be determined by the City at a later date. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 70 Mcinagement Plan 



BATHROOM & POTABLE WATER FACILITIES 

Public restrooms and water fountains will be provided at key points throughout 
the greenway system. These should be cited in conjunction with existing park 
sites, and other public facilities capable of supporting greenway users. 
Generally, these facilities are normally provided within typical greenways on an 
"as-needed" basis. The following locations will be specifically defined within 
maps and brochures for the greenway, and on signage systems throughout the 
greenway, designating where restrooms and drinking fountains are available. 
Some of these sites will require the installation of new restrooms and drinking 
fountains. 

Gainesville Mall 

Ring Park /Elks Lodge 

Westside Park 

IvOblolly Environmental Education Facility 

Green Acres Park 

Forest Park 

Oaks Mall 

Kanapaha Botanical Gardens 

PICNIC. SCENIC VIEW SHED AND REST AREAS 

The Preferred Design Concept Plan map denotes areas throughout the greenway 
that offer ideal areas for picnicking, scenic views and appropriate rest stops. 
The type and amount of facilities at each of these locations is best left to 
decisions that will be made during the preparation of site plans. As a general 
rule, these areas should be designed to be low maintenance, accessible to 
maintenance vehicles, and appropriately signed with User Rules and 
Regulations. For large group activities and popular destinations, the City and 
County may want to consider implementing a reservation system to manage 
use. The ideal sites for locating picnic facilities are as follows: 

• Ring Park 

• Westside Park 

• Green Acres Park 

• Forest Park 

• Kanapaha Botanical Gardens 

Scenic areas throughout the greenway should be emphasized by overlook 
platforms, boardwalks that extend into native landscapes or observation 
towers, where appropriate. Again, these facilities are best determined through 
a more detailed site design for each scenic overlook. The areas within the 
Project Site that have scenic view sheds that may be considered for locating 
observation facilities are as follows: 

• Loblolly Environmental Education Area 

• Sugarfoot Prairie 

• Hogtown Prairie 

• Lake Kanapaha 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville, FL 71 Management Plan 



Rest areas are located frequently throughout the project area. For example, 
rest areas can be the park sites, public schools, shopping malls, and 
destinations within the University of Florida. Additionally, some greenway 
users will most likely travel to neighbors homes, offices, or other commercial 
establishments along the greenway. 

USE OF RECYCLED WASTE MATERIALS 

The Town of Gary. North Carolina and Greenways Incorporated pioneered the 
use of recycled waste products in developing the Swift Creek Recycled 
Greenway. In doing so, the level of awareness has been raised, nationally, 
regarding the use of recycled plastic lumber for building greenway bridges, sign 
posts, benches and boardwalks; bottom ash from coal fire electrical generation 
plants as a substitution for aggregate base course; recycled aluminum for 
information, educational, festival and directional signage; and recycled 
asphalt for paved multi-use trails. As the City considers design development 
strategies for specific facilities, recycled waste materials and products will be 
strongly considered for use in construction. The Regional Transit System is 
currently exploring the use of recycled materials in the improvement of bus 
shelters and other amenities. The Team recommends that as the City 
considers design development strategies for specific facilities, recycled waste 
materials and products be strongly considered for use in construction. Some 
recycled waste products have been demonstrated in Gary, NG to have saved the 
town money, in comparison with traditional raw materials. Specific 
applications depend on regional considerations, most importantly the 
cooperation of local industries, product manufacturers and sales 
representatives in the development and delivery of these products at a cost 
effective price. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville, FL 72 Management Plan 



IMPACTS OF GREENWAY 

DEVELOPMENT 



IMPACTS OF GREENWAY DEVELOPMENT 

Greenway facility development is not without impacts, both to the natural 
environment and to adjacent land uses. However, through proper planning 
and appropriate design, most of these impacts can be mitigated, and a 
successful public-use facility can be developed. Therefore, before undertaking 
any site alterations or physical improvements that are not addressed in the 
approved Master Development and Management Plan, the City shall request 
written approval for the proposed modifications from the Florida Communities 
Trust. 

The Consulting Team and the City will develop this greenway facility in a 
manner that exemplifies the best in environmental sensitivity and land 
development, and strives to minimize negative public impacts on adjacent 
private properties. Based on our analysis of the Hogtown Creek greenway 
corridor, we feel that the following areas will receive the most impact from 
greenway facility development. 

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS 

Of primary concern to the City and the Consulting Team is the protection of 
sensitive landscapes, including steep slopes, habitat of rare or threatened 
plants and animals, wetlands, the natural creek channel and tributaries of 
Hogtown Creek and certain portions of the floodplain which are easily scarred 
by public access and use. 

The project will be consistent with Federal, State. Water Management District 
and Local Regulations to protect wetland sites from facility development 
encroachment. It is the goal of the City's and the Team's design to avoid, or 
minimize disturbance to all jurisdictional wetland areas of the project. 

PROJECTIONS OF USE/LANDSCAPE CARRYING CAPACITY 
One of the greatest impacts to the ecological systems of the study corridor 
landscape will come from the permitted public access and use by trail 
enthusiasts, commuters and recreationists. Given the current status of 
disorganized and unstructured recreational use. the Consulting Team believes 
that the study corridor landscape is suffering its greatest use-related impact. A 
clearly defined network of trail treads, along with a structured public access 
and use management program will offer delineated corridors for these activities, 
and thus reduce wide spread impacts. 

In order to better understand the limits of carrying capacity, the level of use 
must first be defined throughout the corridor. The Consulting Team predicts 
that usage levels will vary throughout the corridor, based largely on 
origin/destination and usage generators, and on user profiles that have been 
generated from other greenway systems throughout the United States. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville, FL 73 Management Plan 



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Between NW 23rd Boulevard and NW 16th Avenue, the Team projects that the 
usage will be of medium intensity (See Table 3); however, the preferred route for 
the greenway, the size and types of greenway lands proposed for use, and the 
land's environmental sensitivity, offer greater carrying capacity in the 
landscape to absorb higher levels of future use. 



TABLE 3 

Intensity of Trail Use 



User Type 
Pedestrian /Walker 
Bicyclists 
Equestrians 



Low Intensity Use Medium Intensity Use High Intensity Use 

2 PFM'"orLess 10-15 PFM 25 PFM 

50 ADBT (2) or Less 200 ADBT 1 000 ADBT 

4 HTD (3) or Less 20 HTD 100 HTD 



1) PFM = pedestrians per foot width of walkway/minute: Souixe Tlmesaver Standards for Landscape Architecture 

2) ADBT = average dally bicycle trip: Source: Greenways Incorporated 

3) HTD = horses per 6 foot trail/day: Source: American Horse Council 



Between NW 1 6th Avenue and Green Acre Park, the geographic center of the 
project, the Team believes that the level of usage will be high intensity. This 
intensity will vary depending on the type of facilities developed and the 
connections that are made with different land uses. For example, usage by 350 
persons per day during the week might occur between NW 16th Avenue and 
Loblolly Environmental Education Center. On the weekend this could rise to 
500 or even as high as 750 users on a sunny and mild day. Around Westgate 
Shopping Center and Creekside Mall, use is likely to extend into the evening, 
and therefore exceed these usage estimates. If a trail system is extended from 
these commercial areas to the University of Florida campus, it would not be 
unusual to see average usage at 1000 users/day. 

Between NW 16th Avenue and Green Acre Park the environment has been 
modified by man, and, with the exception of the Loblolly Environmental 
Education Center, it is not considered to be highly sensitive landscape to 
further encroachment. The current conceptual plan for the greenway contains 
ideas for restoration of this landscape, to improve ecological function, 
aesthetics and biological diversity. 

From Green Acre Park to 1-75, and Sugarfoot Prairie, the ecological sensitivity 
of the landscape gains greater value, and the concern over public access and 
use is of greater importance. Due to the origins and destinations in this area, 
and the distances between other community resources, we estimate that usage 
will be of low intensity. Event programming may boost infrequent medium 
intensity use, but for the most part the Team estimates that during the 
weekdays, usage will remain around 75 persons per day through this area, 
rising to 250 users per day on weekends. The area around Forest Park may 
receive higher levels of usage, especially on weekends. The Team feels that 
these landscapes are sensitive to human use, and carrying capacity is limited 
through this area. Much of the use in this area is proposed to be restricted to 
upland areas, or confined within boardwalk trails. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway 
GainesvUie, PL 



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Master Deyelopment & 
Management Plan 



II 

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The Lake Kanapaha and Hogtown Prairie landscape is highly sensitive for many 
reasons, and t±ierefore has a very limited carrying capacity. Public access and 
use will need to be both programmed and actively monitored to prevent 
degradation of the environment. At the same time, this landscape is the 
largest throughout the entire greenway system, and therefore is capable of 
supporting high usage levels, as long as this usage is not too concentrated nor 
occurs too frequently in one area. Dispersing the usage to different areas of 
this landscape will be the key to matching environmental carrying capacity. 
The Team feels that usage throughout this landscape will be low to medium 
intensity, based on 1) the origin/destination points surrounding the area, 2) 
degree of control that will most likely be exercised by management agencies, 
and 3) the desire of people to travel to this area from other parts of the 
community. Events programming will raise this level of use. Usage could 
exceed medium intensity if, for example, successful ecotourism programs are 
established. 

Finally, another way to examine the issue of carrying capacity is to define the 
type of usage that is likely to occur within the greenway and attempt to 
measure its impact on certain types of environments. Table 4 is an example 
tool that may be used to provide a brief assessment of how certain usage is 
graded by its impact on the environment. 



TABLE 4 












Environmental Suitability of Trail Use within Sensitive Environments 






Tape of Use 










Ek:oloQ{cal Sensitivitij 


No Access 


Walking Bicycling 


Equestrian 


Mountain Bike 


Motor Bikes 


LX)W (upland terrace, 
stable-rocky soils and 
mature forest) 


o 


o o 


o 


o 


O 


Moderate (lowland terrace 
river valley, suitable soils, 
successlonal forest) 


o 


o o 


o 


o 


O 


High (wetlands. 
[Kjcoslns. steep slopes, 
hydrtc soils) 


o 


o o 


o 


o 


o 


O most suitable O 


suitable 


O not suitable 








Source: Greenways Incorpora 


te<l 1990 











Hogtown Creek Greenway 
Gainesville. FL 



75 



Master Development & 
Management Plan 



INFLUENCES OF PROPER TRAIL TREAD DEVELOPMENT 

Based on the Preferred Design Concept generated by chare tte participants, the 
following trail tread types will be utilized for the Hogtown Creek Greenway: 

• 10-foot wide, asphalt paved, multi-use trail 

• 8-foot wide, soil cement, pedestrian only trail 

• variable width, concrete sidewalks 

• variable width, wood or recycled plastic lumber boardwalks 

The greatest impacts to the environment occur when these trail treads are 
built. Construction practices will be specified during the design development 
phase which will limit the amount of encroachment into the native 
environment for construction of these trails and other greenway facilities. This 
will include limiting the type of equipment that is used to small machinery so 
as to reduce operating space requirements; phase trail development so that 
environmentally suitable points of ingress and egress are determined that 
permit sensitive construction practices; or define a longer time frame for 
construction and encourage the use of hand-construction practices to reduce 
the need for large, more efficient equipment. 

The trail tread types and surfaces that have been selected for the greenway are 
designed to be both low maintenance and durable for intensive use, while not 
destroying the natural surrounding ecosystems. The multi-use asphalt trail 
will be built using geotextile fabrics to maintain the integrity of the subbase 
and extend the life of the surface. The soil cement trail offers several 
advantages during construction, most importantly that it can be built in short 
sections, and makes use of the existing soil mass. Properly developed soil 
cement trails are capable of supporting intensive pedestrian use, and withstand 
the natural influences of water and wind erosion. However, repeated mountain 
bike use could rut the surface and cause tread failure. 

These trail tread types, if properly developed, should significantly reduce the 
excessive wear and resulting sediment that is generated from natural surface 
trails. 

IMPACTS ON ADJACENT PROPERTIES 

Local residents have shown that they are very concerned with existing patterns 
of public use within the Hogtown Creek corridor, and transfer their concerns to 
proposed future development of greenway facilities. Issues regarding safety and 
security of greenway facilities, the economic impact of greenway development 
on private property values, liability of adjacent private property owners with 
respect to the adjacent public greenway, perceived criminal activity associated 
with greenway development, and the responsibilities of local government for 
maintenance and management of the public resource are of primary concern to 
adjacent landowners. This report addresses these issues and suggests a 
specific management plan for the Hogtown Creek Greenway. After review of 
this report has been completed by appropriate agencies, the Consulting Team 
will respond to specific concerns not yet addressed, and make every effort to 
provide up-to-date information that can serve to satisfy unresolved issues. 

Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 76 Management Plan 



BUFFERING AND SCREENING 

The Consulting Team concluded from discussions held with City staff, local 
citizens and the Design Chare tte participants, that loss of privacy is one of the 
most important issues to address in the design and development of the 
Hogtown Creek Greenway. Loss of privacy can stem from direct visual 
connection from the public use greenway to private property; from physical 
access to properties because no delineation between public-private property is 
present in the landscape; and from noise that is generated from the greenway 
users. There are several ways in which privacy, buffering and screening can be 
enhanced through greenway trail and facility development. One option would 
be to make certain that final trail alignments are routed away from adjacent 
homes, or to install earthen berms between homes and trails or facilities. 
Grade separation is another way of achieving buffering, but is somewhat 
difficult to plan for in Gainesville due to the flat terrain. 

The two best methods the City will use for resolving the potential loss of 
privacy due to greenway facility development is to: 1) install appropriate 
fencing between the greenway trail and private property; and 2) install 
appropriate evergreen and deciduous plants to serve as a vegetative buffer 
between the uses (See Figure 20). 

Fencing - A 6-foot high wood privacy fencing will be installed at 
appropriate locations adjacent to residential property to mitigate both 
physical and visual access to private properties. This proposed fencing 
will be designed to be attractive and secure, so that it complements both 
land uses. 

Vegetative Buffers - Native or non-invasive exotic, tall evergreen shrubs 
and trees be installed in appropriate locations along the trail to provide 
separation between the trail and adjacent private properties. The 
primary purpose of these planted areas will be to provide physical and 
visual separation between uses. The shrubs and trees will have to be 
appropriately selected for each location so that their growth habit is full, 
and so they achieve mature height within a reasonable time frame. 

MITIGATING VISUAL BLIGHT 

The greenway's development will also, account for adjacent land uses that are 
not desirable to view from trails and other facilities within the project. For the 
most part, the project study area does not possess extensive areas of visual 
blight. The few that the Team recognized from its on-site evaluation of the 
project study area includes: behind Gainesville Mall, Westgate Shopping 
Center and Creekside Mall. Some screening of these areas may be necessary to 
soften these degraded or utilitarian landscapes. Vegetative screening will be 
accomplished through the use of native or non-invasive ornamental species. 
Fences or decorative walls might be used if limited space is an issue. The 
Hogtown Creek Greenway is an urban experience, and its relationships with 
surrounding properties will not be eliminated to improve aesthetics. Part of 
the educational experience of the greenway is to witness the proximity of urban 
development adjacent to fragile and diminishing natural resources. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville, FL 77 Management Plan 



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PERMITS REQUIRED FOR GREENWAY DEVELOPMENT 

At this stage in tlie planning and design process, the Team has identified 
several agencies that will have to review design development plans before one 
shovel of dirt is turned for greenway facility development. An itemization of 
some government permits that will be required is shown below. 

1) Land Use and Zoning Classifications and Amendments. As confirmed by 
the County Office of Planning and Development, those properties located 
within the jurisdiction of Alachua County have land use categories that 
range from varying densities of residential to conservation and recreation. 
Therefore, prior to obtaining permits for developing the greenway facilities, 
each of these parcels will need to be addressed individually (on a case-by- 
case basis) to ensure their existing or proposed land use is compatible 
with the existing adjacent land uses. 

The land use amendment procedure to be followed once a parcel of land 
has been acquired, has been established by the State of Florida, 
Department of Community Affairs (DCA), and is the same amendment 
process that all citizens and governmental bodies currently use for 
proposing amendments to their comprehensive plans. The state allows 
each governmental body, and the citizens within its jurisdiction, to 
submit applications twice a year for reviewing proposed comprehensive 
plan amendments. One or more amendment applications may be 
submitted for review during each of the review periods. 

In order to change the land use of a parcel within the greenway to the 
appropriate greenway land use, the City, or County, staff will, respectively 
prepare an amendment application on behalf of the applicant, the City of 
Gainesville, or Alachua County. Once the application is submitted, the 
review process will take approximately six to seven months. The first three 
months involves scheduling meetings and public hearings to review the 
proposed amendment by the City's agencies and citizenry. It will be 
determined during this time whether or not the amendment should be 
approved and submitted to the state for its review. If the amendment is 
not approved by the City, then the application is not forwarded to the DCA 
and the parcel's existing land use designation remains the same. 
However, if the amendment is approved by the City, it is submitted to the 
DCA for their 60 to 90 day review. Once the DCA's review is completed, 
the amendment is sent back to the City for final adoption of the 
amendment by the City Commission. 

Once appropriate land use designations are in place, rezoning or special 
use permits consistent with the land use designation may be required on a 
parcel by parcel basis. This may be done contemporaneously with or 
following land use redesign ation. 

The County Office of Codes Enforcement states that " (greenway) uses 
must be clearly defined (on a case-by-case basis) for preliminary review, 
and a re-zoning or special use permit for a public use may be necessary if 
proposed uses are not consistent with current zoning categories." 

Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 78 Management Plan 





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2) City and County site plan approvals, as per their Land Development 
Regulations from planning, traffic engineering, utilities, police, fire, 
environmental protection, engineering and building departments. 
Approvals have to also be obtained from the review agencies and 
commissions when required. 

3) St. Johns River Water Management District permits, including a Wetland 
Resource Management permit for any dredging or filling in flood plains and 
a stormwater discharge permit for imiprovements, such as parking lots. 

4) To meet the requirements of the State Statutes, the Florida Department of 
Historical Resources will require subsurface testing for the high, medium 
and low potenticd areas as well as a completed assessment of the 
significance of located sites. Compliance with these guidelines will be 
required prior to obtaining any permits for the project. 

During the beginning of the site plan development phase, a list of all the 
licenses and permits required for implementing the site plan shall be submitted 
to the Florida Communities Trust. Prior to the initiation of construction, the 
applicant. City, or County, shall provide copies of all the required licenses and 
permits, as previously identified, to the Florida Communities Trust. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 80 Management Plan 



I 



ENVIRONMENTAL 
MONITORING PLAN 

I 
f 



ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PLAN 

To a large extent, the environmental inventory work begun as a result of this 
project must be continued by the City and community at large in order to 
properly assess the long term effects of greenway development, both positives 
and potential negatives, on the Hogtown Creek basin environment. 

First and foremost, a framework needs to be established within which 
biological and ecological changes can be readily observed and properly assessed. 
Second, their needs to be appropriate interface among greenway-specific 
monitoring programs with experts and programs now employed by the City, and 
through other local and state experts, including the University of Florida. 
Third, monitoring studies will be developed so that further inventory of flora, 
fauna and other natural resources are direct by-products. Fourth, monitoring 
must be cost and time efficient, and provide accessible information to local 
decision makers and adjacent landowners. Fifth, ecological evaluation will be 
a part of the "greenway experience" so that all users, regardless of age and 
educational background, can understand the interrelationships between 
humans and the environment. 

As previously discussed, in order to develop the framework for the greenway's 
environmental monitoring plan and be able to efficiently interface with other 
professionals and governmental agencies, the plant and animal species found 
and monitored on the Project Site must be forwarded to the Florida Natural 
Areas Inventory (FNAI). This information can be provided by documenting the 
location of the plant and /or animal species on the Project Site, then 
completing an Element Occurrence Records form for each particular species 
found and sending this information to the FNAI office. 

The best safeguard for protecting biological diversity and ecological integrity is 
to limit human encroachment and disturbance to the corridor landscape. 
Additionally, monitoring and maintaining the gross ecological integrity of the 
creek system will preserve a landscape for most of the plants and animals that 
live in the area. With this in mind, the overall greenway monitoring program 
will seek to regularly evaluate the following key aspects: 

• Plant community structure, composition and dynamics 

• Hydrology - flow rates, water levels, water quality, sources of runoff 

• Soil moisture levels 

• Animal occurrences and densities 

• Bird occurrences, densities, nesting and reproductive success 

• Exotic plant and animal densities 

• Impacts of human use related to trail use and programming 

• Type of trail use - hiking, biking, mountain biking, horseback riding 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 81 Management Plan 



WATER QUALITY AND QUANTITY 

The hydrology of Hogtown Creek is critical to the health of the creek-side 
ecosystem. Even though it might appear that the creek appears in good 
condition, following many years of uncontrolled runoff, pollution and general 
abuse, no one has attempted to maintain or improve the natural function of 
the creek ecosystem. Therefore, a more active attempt to maintain and improve 
the creek ecosystem is suggested. While aquatic vegetation responds most 
readily to phosphorus and other nutrients, the measurement of water quality 
in relation to animal health does not focus on nutrient availability, but on 
non availability and toxicity. The important elements that effect a creek 
system includes: minerals, heavy metal concentrations, turbidity and flow 
rates. 

During the Consulting Team's evaluation of the corridor, signs of severe and 
sudden fluctuations in volume and flow rate were detected, probably due to the 
numerous runoff inputs, many of which collects rainwater on paved surface 
and deliver it quickly to the creek. Most native vertebrate creek fauna cannot 
tolerate frequent changes of this magnitude. Flow is the "major limiting factor 
to creek life" (Odum 1971). Flow meters are inexpensive, unobtrusive, and are 
recommended to be installed above important runoff entry points to the creek, 
with the goal of stabilization of hydrological regime. This stabilization does 
not rule out natural fluctuations. Seasonal and daily variation in flow is 
natural and essential to the success of invertebrates and fish (Mueller 1974). 
Other important variables simple to monitor are siltation rates and types, and 
evapotranspiration rates. 

Monitoring activities related to stormwater quality are generally limited in 
Gainesville. The Hogtown Creek watershed has been the primary area of 
interest with respect to water quality due to the presence of an Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund site located on a tributary to the 
Springstead Creek Branch of the system. In addition, as part of the 201 
wastewater facilities planning process, selected water quality data were 
compiled and limited field sampling was conducted as part of an investigation 
conducted at the University of Florida (Huber, et al. 1980; Source: City of 
Gainesville, Stormwater Management Master Plan, 1992) 

A U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS) stream gauge located at the outflow from 
Sugarfoot Prairie on SW 20th Avenue provides the only basis for evaluation of 
flood flow frequency conditions for the City. The primary station for obtaining 
published rainfall data is the Municipal Airport Station. The summary of 
rainfall data from that station is reported in Table 5, which provides monthly 
totals for 1991. 1990. and 1989; normal totals for the period of record; and 
record monthly totals and the years during which they occurred. As reported in 
Table 5, the normal annual total rainfall is 52.84 inches and the cumulative 
deficit, compared with that total over the past 3 years, is 10.92 inches. (Source: 
City of Gainesville, Stormwater Management Master Plan, 1992) 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 82 Management Plan 



NORMAL MONTHLY RAINFALL DATA 

FOR THE 
GAINESVILLE MUNICIPAL AIRPORT 





1989 


1990 


1991 


Normal 


Record 


January 


1.15 


1.88 


5.74 


3.27 


11.79 in 1904 


February 


1.99 


2.86 


0.32 


3.91 


7.92 in 1970 


March 


1.56 


3.62 


9.72 


3.67 


10.48 in 1959 


April 


1.34 


3.67 


5.73 


2.94 


8.95 in 1949 


May 


1.98 


3.18 


6.35 


4.18 


9.58 in 1965 


June 


10.66 


9.05 


5.40 


6.63 


15.74 in 1965 


July 


3.98 


10.36 


7.24 


7.09 


16.41 in 1909 


August 


7.81 


8.10 


5.10 


7.99 


15.15 in 1945 


September 


8.09 


2.14 


1.69 


5.60 


13.04 in 1964 


October 


3.12 


3.51 


1.40 


2.33 


10.00 in 1944 


November 


1.81 


1.07 


0.33 


2.04 


7.27 in 1972 


December 


4.02 


1.39 


1.39 


3.19 


9.22 in 1945 


TOTAL 


46.36 


50.83 


50.41 


52.84 





83 



TABLE 5 



One of the most significant flooding events during the past several years 
occurred during September 1988. To provide a basis for comparing that storm 
event to the design storm conditions used for developing flood mapping data, 
observed hourly rainfall data published by the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) were obtained for the Gainesville station 
designated 3 WSW. The period of September 5th to the 8th was reported to 
have a cumulative total rainfall of 9.3 inches. Reviewing the hourly values, the 
most intense 24-hour period was found to cover the period from 1 1 p.m. on 
September 5th to 1 1 p.m. on September 6th, during which the total rainfall 
depth was 6.6 inches. (Source: City of Gainesville, Stormwater Management 
Master Plan, 1992) 

The hourly values reported for this 24-hour period are plotted in Figure 2 1 
along with the design storm values used to perform stream basin hydrologic 
analyses for flood mapping and basin planning. Although the total depth for 
this period, 6.6 inches, is close to the 10-year design storm depth of 6.8 inches, 
the slope of the steep portion of the curve is lower for the September storm 
than for the design storm. The most intense hour for the September storm 
produced 1.5 inches, while the most intense hour of the 10-year design storm 
produces 3.13 inches. For comparison, the 1-year, 1-hour rainfall for 
Gainesville is reported by the Weather Bureau to be 1.9 inches and the 10-year, 
1-hour storm is 3.13 inches. (Source: City of Gainesville, Stormwater 
Management Master Plan, 1992) 

Based on the NOAA data, the 4-day period of September 5th to the 8th, rainfall 
was essentially a 10-year storm based on total 4-day volume, but, based on 
peak-hour intensity, it was less than a 1-year storm and is therefore less severe 
than the standard design storm approach used to perform hydrologic analyses 
for the flood study update. (Source: City of Gainesville, Stormwater 
Management Master Plan, 1992) 

In conclusion, although the September 1988 storm was a significant event, it 
was much less severe than the design storm conditions used for developing the 
flood maps and performing basin planning. (Source: City of Gainesville, 
Stormwater Management Master Plan. 1992) 

To provide a better background on existing problems and a basis for modeling 
system conditions and facility performance, a two-part level of baseline 
monitoring is suggested. The two parts should match the requirements of the 
EPA and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) 
regulations and should include both quantity and quality measurements. 
Water quality parameters monitored should be those required by the EPA 
permitting program. Suggested locations for monitoring stations include 
Possum Creek at NW 39th Avenue. Hogtown and Possum creeks at NW 16th 
Avenue, Hogtown Creek at the concrete weir near the Loblolly Environmental 
Education Facflity, the outflow from Sugarfoot Prairie at the USGS gauge 
located on SW 20th Avenue, and selected outfall points from each of the 
remaining stream basins. At least one rain gauge should be located within the 



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Hogtown Creek watershed, probably in the vicinity of Westside Park, and a 
second gauge in the downtown area, probably at the Thomas Center. In 
addition, it would be advisable to collect inflow and outflow data for selected 
stormwater detention ponds throughout the City to evaluate system operation 
and performance factors. (Source: City of Gainesville, Stormwater Management 
Master Plan, 1992) 

It is CH2M HILL'S experience that, due to vandalism and security problems, 
stormwater sampling can generally be accomplished at comparable cost and 
with higher reliability by manual rather than automated methods. However, 
this requires an additional commitment of manpower to allow for quick 
mobilization so that runoff data can be collected immediately following the 
start of rainfall. Each storm event sampled should be preceded by at least a 
72-hour dry period, during which no more than 0. 1 inches of rainfall has been 
measured. If more than one storm event is sampled at a single outfall, it 
should be separated from the previous storm by at least one month. It also is 
desirable to sample stormwater quality during both the summer wet season 
and winter dry season. Stage-discharge control sections must be established to 
allow computations of flow rates to be accomplished. The combination of 
quantity and quality measurements will allow the calculation of pollutant 
loading information. If long-term quantity measurements are collected, flood 
frequency relationships can be compiled to further evaluate modeled 
predictions. (Source: City of Gainesville, Stormwater Management Master 
Plan, 1992) 

Presently, there are eight proposed stormwater management projects in the 
Project Site, with goals of improving water quality in Hogtown Creek (Source: 
Gainesville Department of Community Development, 1992). These are 
illustrated on Map 12, and are briefly described as follows: 

Sugarfoot Prairie - Designates a flood protection berm for the residential 
subdivisions that is scheduled to be completed in 1993. A modification to the 
culvert that connects the Prairie to Terwilliger Pond is expected to lower the 
flood elevation in the Prairie by approximately .5 feet. 

Westgate Shopping Center - Proposed actions include modifications to the 
floodway channel, installation of bicycle /pedestrian trails, wet detention 
facilities parallel to the channel, and other facilities for water quality 
treatment. 

Loblolly Environmental Education Facility - Includes installation of berms to 
create stormwater storage areas using existing topography of the natural creek 
system. To avoid stress to the woody vegetation, the duration and depth of 
flooding will be designed to allow natural levels to return within 24 to 48 
hours. 

Ridgewood Park - Includes a berm designed to protect this residential 
neighborhood from impacts of the 100-year storm. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

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Proposed Stormwaler Management Projects 

Hogtown Creek Greenway 

Gainesville, Florida 



LEGEND 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Bourxiary Un« 



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1 . Sugarfoot Prairie (2 projects) 

2. Westgale Shopping Area 

3. Loblolly 

4. Rldgewood Park 

5. Possum Creek at NW 16th Avenue 

6. Hogtown Creek at Rattlesnake 

7. Hogtown Creek at Gainesville Mall 



MAP 12 



0«panrT«n( o4 ComrrvrHy 0«v«tcpm*n« 
AuflirtI \99Q 



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Possum Creek at NW 1 6th Avenue - Might include replacing culvert at 16th 
Avenue to reduce backwater flooding of upstream homes. 

Hogtown Creek at Rattlesnake Creek - Includes a berm designed to protect 
homes southwest of NW 16th Avenue and NW 22nd Avenue from flooding. The 
berm will divert flow to the Shands Swamp wetlands. 

Hogtown Creek behind Gainesville Mall - Provides for the creation of a detention 
storage basin for this area to control overland runoff. Sediment trap is also a 
feature of the project. 

Water quality can be effectively monitored by sampling certain species of 
benthos. The nymph of the gomphid dragonfly, an extensive creek bank 
burrowing species, is a good indicator of water quality -- while it can tolerate 
moderate levels of pollution, it is quite common and therefore easily collected. 
Some creek damselfly nymphs are also good water quality indicators and will be 
monitored. Both of these insects species are abundant on the creek bottom in 
the 8th Avenue bottomlands. Minnows will also be excellent candidates for 
monitoring since the are susceptible to changes in water quality and 
temperature. Densities of native versus exotic fresh water clams will also 
provide useful and interesting information on changes in water quality. 

SOIL MOISTURE, COMPACTION AND LOSS LEVELS 

Soil moisture levels will be monitored in selected areas around Lake Kanapaha 
in order to determine the humidity of microhabitats for shrews, bats, rodents, 
birds and soil dwelling insects. Soil compaction studies will be conducted on 
and adjacent to different greenway facilities. This data will help quantify the 
impact of both on and off-trail use by visitors on the soil structure and soil 
dwelling creatures. Soil loss along greenway trails will be measured on a 
regular basis. In addition, siltation rates will be measured in creek areas as a 
component of soil loss, water quality, and erosion monitoring. 

PLANTS: COMMUNITY STRUCTURE, COMPOSITION & DYNAMICS 

Several approaches proposed in this section address the diversity of community 
types, ecological problems and existing research programs. 

Photopoints - A simple post and camera platform will be established at critical 
areas along the greenway to evaluate changes in vegetative communities. Over 
time a cumulative display of seasonal or annual photographs could be 
displayed adjacent to specific points or a collection could be displayed in an 
educational center. 

Transects - These studies are recommended for areas in which ecotones occur, 
or where other distinct physical features intersect. Belt transects are proposed 
similar to those already conducted by Larry Johnson (1992). Transects of this 
t3Ape are particularly effective in measuring changes in the forest structure and 
species composition. A specific proposal for how these measurements are to be 
taken is included in the Appendix of this report. Transects will be permanently 



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marked with pieces of reinforcing steel bar at either end and temporarily 
marked with bamboo or plastic stakes every 5 meters. Photopoints should also 
be established at each end. 

Plots - These studies are recommended for certain areas of the greenway that 
support distinct or unique habitats. Plots can be designed to accomplish many 
different goals and consideration will be given to each site before a plot is 
installed. Greenway plot studies, in general, will be 20 meters by 20 meters, 
and designed for monitoring at two-year time intervals. Plots can also be used 
to evaluate area responses to prescribed bums and exotics removal. A specific 
proposal for defining and measuring these plots is provided in the Appendix of 
this report. 

Remote Sensing - Aerial photography/ remote sensing is recommended as a 
means of monitoring vegetative cover on Lake Kanapaha. The importance of 
maintaining an even ration of closed plant cover to open water surface cannot 
be overemphasized. Annual or semi-annual overflights are conducted by the 
Florida Department of Transportation, and could provide adequate information 
to determine the status of the lake surface. It is very likely that this could be 
accomplished for not only Lake Kanapaha, but for the entire greenway. 

MAMMALS: OCCURRENCES AND DENSITIES 

The Consulting Team was unable to complete a thorough inventory and 
evaluation of mammal occurrences and densities due to time constraints. This 
baseline information must be completed by the City before effective monitoring 
can take place. A specific proposal for mammal sampling and evaluation is 
included in the Appendix of this report. Care and vigilance will be required to 
maintain the small mammal communities that most likely inhabit remaining 
forests of the Hogtown Creek basin. A hazard already threatening small 
mammal communities and the gopher tortoises is domestic predators. Dogs 
and cats will probably increase in presence on the greenway as connectivity and 
access points are increased, although the public purchase of properties within 
the project study area will prevent future conversion of such properties to the 
residential land uses most likely to increase domestic predators. 

Horseback riders could enjoy the greenway if paths are included within the 
greenway for their use. Erosion along horse trails is generally more severe than 
any other form of non-motorized greenway use, and trails should not be 
installed on erodible slopes or near marsh landscapes. The open prairie north 
of Lake Kanapaha needs to be maintained either by frequent fires or controlled 
grazing. The latter may be easier and safer. Either privately owned horses or 
bison from Payne's Prairie would be suitable and probably aesthetically 
pleasing to most greenway visitors. 

BIRDS: OCCURRENCES. DENSITIES, NESTING & REPRODUCTIONS 

The greatest diversity of bird species will be maintained if: 1) vertical 
stratification is maintained; 2) the mosaic of different aquatic microhabitats 
are protected; and 3) the various nesting habitats currently used are not 
disturbed (Stouffer and Best, 1990). Bald eagles require solitary tall pine trees 

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for nesting. For tiie protection of the nest that exist around Lake Kanapaha 
and Sugarfoot Hammock, the United States Fish and Wildlife Department 
guidelines shall be followed. The guidelines include the establishment of a 
750-foot diameter primary zone of "no disturbance" around the nest tree. In 
addition, a 1,500-foot diameter secondary zone will be established, allowing 
only minimal disturbance and no development that will interfere with the 
eagle's ability to freely access its hunting ground. Furthermore, maintaining 
natural vegetation structure and heterogeneity should be considered an overall 
management recommendation. 

Monitoring bird occurrences, densities, nesting and reproductive success can 
best be accomplished through the assistance of local bird enthusiasts. Some 
of these groups and individuals are already involved in annual bird counts for 
areas within the greenway. A more systematic sampling of passerines can be 
obtained from repeated strip transects and mist netting. If the objectives are to 
determine their abundance, then systematic nest and call counts should be 
performed. As with mammals, there are some inconspicuous species that are 
impossible to monitor without extensive financial and time outlay. 

Birds on open water are easily and accurately censused; careful counts should 
be conducted four times per year to note any changes in resident or migrant 
species. The prairie region of the greenway should be censused seasonally as it 
is a stopover for migrating sandhill cranes and possibly endangered whooping 
cranes. 

REPTILES, AMPHIBIANS, FISH AND OTHER ORGANISMS 

Gopher tortoises represent one of the few species occurring within the greenway 
that will benefit from direct management. All gopher tortoise areas should be 
marked with clear signs warning of penalties for harassment. A few other 
species merit special monitoring attention, including the dragonfly and 
damselfly species. In general, snakes, salamanders, skunks, frogs, toads, and 
numerous other organisms frequently inhabit dead standing and fallen trees, 
branches and piles of detritus on the ground or in the creek. Temporary pond 
sites are important to amphibian breeding and should be protected. These 
potential microhabitats should not be disturbed. 



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FACILITY MANAGMENT 
& MAINTENANCE 



FACILITY MANAGEMENT AND MAINTENANCE 

The City will adopt a clear and concise facility maintenance and management 
program for the Hogtown Creek Greenway. The objectives of this facility 
maintenance and management plan is to assure that the public's health and 
safety are protected during normal use of the greenway. and to restore the 
greenway landscape disturbed by facility development or prior abuse and 
neglect. 

The Hogtown Creek Greenway will be classified by the City as a linear park, 
and will be formally maintained in a clean, safe and usable condition like all 
other parks within the city. Greenway lands will be maintained in a natural 
condition to the greatest extent possible, so that they may fulfill multiple 
functions including stormwater management, environmental and historical 
interpretation, wildlife habitat protection, passive recreation and alternative 
transportation. 

FACILITY MAINTENANCE 

Maintenance will include the removal of debris, trash, litter, obnoxious and 
unsafe man-made structures, and other foreign matter so as to make the 
greenway corridor safe for public use. Removal of vegetation will be done with 
discretion. The objective in controlling the growth of existing vegetation will be 
to maintain clear and open sight lines along the edge of the trail, and 
elimiinate potential hazards that could occur due to natural growth, severe 
weather or other unacceptable conditions. For bicycle facilities, the American 
Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the 
recognized legal authority on bicycle facility development in the United States, 
recommends that 2.5-foot clear zones be maintained on both sides of bikeway 
trails to provide room for maneuvering and sight distance. The City will 
remove all vegetation a minimum distance of three feet from each edge of the 
trail to maintain this nationally accepted standard. 

Selective clearing of vegetation will be conducted within a zone that is defined 
as being between three to a minimum ten feet from each edge of the trail. At 
any point along the trail, a user will have a clear, unobstructed view, along the 
centerline of the trail, 300 feet ahead and behind his/her position. The only 
exception to this policy will be where terrain or curves in the trail serve as the 
limiting factor. Department of Cultural and Nature Operations will be 
responsible for the cutting and removal of vegetation. Removal of vegetation 
by individuals other than those persons employed by the City will be deemed 
unlawful and subject to fines and/or prosecution. 

All trail surfaces will be maintained in a safe and usable manner at all times. 
Rough edges, severe bumps or depressions, cracked or uneven pavement, and 
volunteer vegetation occurring in the tread of the trail will be removed and 
replaced in such a manner so that the trail surface is maintained as a 
continuous, even and clean surface. The City will strive to minimize the 



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number of areas where ponding water occurs, however the municipal 
corporation will not be held liable for public use through areas of casual or 
ponded water. 

In terms of control and maintenance of feral animals, these animals are 
uncommon in the Hogtown Creek Greenway's Phase I area. Due to the 
suburban nature of this area, stray animals do not have much of an 
opportunity to become feral as they are either picked up by Animal Control 
officers or killed by automobiles as they cross the network of roadways. Truly 
feral animals are located in the southern portion of the greenway and outside 
of the Phase I area. 

If any feral animals are located in the greenway's Phase I area, live traps will 
be placed in the area that they are frequenting by the Habitat Naturalist. Once 
and animal has been trapped. Animal Control will be notified and animals will 
be disposed of in the prescribed manner. 

Removal of feral animals from the Phase I Hogtown Creek Greenway will begin 
when these animals are discovered which will probably be when trail 
construction and public use begins. Removal will be on-going although it is 
expected that encounters with feral animals will diminish to a very low 
frequency after the first year that the greenway is open, as these animals will 
be trapped, driven out of the area, or killed on the adjacent roadways. 

LANDSCAPE RESTORATION 

During the development of greenway facilities, non-native invasive species will 
be removed, first from areas adjacent to trails, and eventually throughout the 
project area. The schedule for removal of such species will be based on the 
urgency associated with removal, the timing of land acquisitions, and the 
availability of staff, equipment and volunteers to accomplish the removal. 

During removal of invasives, selective weeding will be used to encourage the 
growth of desirable species. Wildflower gardening principles, and installation 
of native species should be used to restore greenway landscapes. Because 
many areas within the greenway are highly disturbed already, and due to 
adjacent private land holdings, total control of invasive species will not be 
possible in all cases. The most environmentally significant lands, as well as 
designated restoration areas will be prioritized for control of such species. 
(Sources: Alachua Conservation Trust, 1992; Florida Depariiment of Natural 
Resources, 1990). 

Eradication of invasive exotic vegetation and subsequent replacement with 
native species will be an ongoing process. It is highly doubtful that some 
species of exotics such as Wandering Jew {Tradescantia fluminensis) or Air 
Potato (Dioscorea bulbifera) will ever be eliminated. However, it is vitally 
important that these species be kept in check or loss of native species may 
ensue. 



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Invasive exotic control will be accomplished by City's Cultural and Nature 
Operations (CNO) habitat management staff utilizing existing staff and 
volunteer groups. Staff and volunteers will assist in manual removal efforts. 
Legally approved systematic herbicides, such as Roundup, will also be used in 
areas where harm to surrounding native vegetation can be prevented. 
Application will be by the City's trained CNO staff. 

The time frame for implementation of the exotic vegetation eradication program 
is scheduled to begin in January. 1994. At the end of 1994, CNO staff will 
develop an annual report on the eradication and revegetation efforts during the 
year. This will contain information of the exotic weeds removed, their amounts 
and locations in 1994 as well as the locations and types of exotic that will be 
scheduled for removal in 1995. 

The amount of exotic weeds that can be removed from the Hogtown Creek 
Greenway area is dependent upon the following three factors: 1) Staffing, 2) 
Volunteer commitment and 3) Quantity of herbicides purchased. 

Habitat Management staff involved in exotic weed removal and revegetation 
efforts will consist of the following: 

Habitat Naturalist: This position will be involved in the logistical 
planning of the plant removal and revegetation projects and will be 
responsible for supervising all exotic control and revegetative project 
related work. 

Permanent Full Time Nature Assistant: This position will apply 
herbicides to designated exotic and will oversee volunteers and other 
designated staff in the manual removal of exotic as well as revegetation 
projects. 

Temporary Nature Assistants: Staff working in this capacity will assist 
in overseeing volunteers as well as participate in manual removal efforts 
of exotic vegetation. 

Volunteers: Individuals and groups recruited by the Habitat Naturalist 
will assist in exotic plant removal and revegetation projects. 

The amount of exotic weeds removed and areas restored will depend to a large 
part on the level of commitment given by the volunteers. A prioritized list will 
be maintained of areas (by greenway development phases) needed to be rid of 
exotic and restored to their natural state. Each section will be checked at the 
end of each year with an update on the priorities list for the next year. 
Improvement in the affected areas will be partially dependent on the number of 
man-hours volunteered and staff designated. 

Herbicides will be used to remove invasive exotics with the amount being 
removed dependent upon the amount of funds allocated for the purchase of 

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herbicides and amount of time that the Nature Assistant will have to make the 
applications. If resources are provided it is recommended that a time allotment 
of four hours /week be spent during the months of April through September for 
herbicide application for the 1994 calendar year. This amount may need to be 
adjusted upward or downward for the following year with the projection made 
in the annual exotic weed removal report which will be submitted in December 
of each year. The Landscape and Tree Management section of the City's Land 
Development Code has also been amended to prohibit the planting of non- 
native invasive vegetation by new non-single family residential development 
within the City. 

Cleaning and restoration of known dump sites will be accomplished in the 
early stages of greenway development. Public access to these areas will be 
restricted until clean-up and restoration is complete. 

Three areas of the Project Site have suffered a significant amount of vegetative 
and erosion damage, primarily due to uncontrolled and excessive motor vehicle, 
motorcycle, and bicycle use and require extensive landscape restoration as part 
of greenway facility development. The three areas are: 1) Ridgewood Park; 2) 
Loblolly Environmental Education Facility and surrounding landscape; 3) 
Forest Park. (Source: Gainesville Department of Community Development, 
1992). 

ASSIGNMENT OF MAINTENANCE RESPONSIBILITIES 

The principal coordinating agent for greenway maintenance will be the City of 
Gainesville Department of Cultural and Nature Operations. The operating 
budget for Nature Operations Division during Fiscal Year 1992-93 is $243,000. 
of which $100,000 is raised from admissions, special events and classes. The 
department is staffed by 8 full-time. 25 temporary, and 200 volunteer workers. 

Gainesville Nature Operations Division Maintenance of vegetation along Glen 
Springs/Elks Club Lodge, Ring Park, Ridgewood Park, Loblolly Environmental 
Education Facility, Creekside Park, and Sugarfoot Prairie. Maintenance 
activities include trash collection; revegetation; repair and replacement of 
benches, signs, fences, tables, trash containers, and similar facilities; and 
removal of invasive and hazardous vegetation. 

Gainesville Parks Division Maintenance of Green Acres Park and Westside 
Park, including the greenway as it occurs within these parks. Maintenance 
activities include trash collection; repair and replacement of benches, signs, 
fences, tables, trash containers, and similar facilities; and removal of invasive 
and hazardous vegetation. 

Gainesville Public Works Department Maintenance of Westgate Shopping 
Center to Hogtown Prairie areas of the greenway; intersections (including 
bridges, culverts, drainage pipes) and access points at NW 23rd Ave., NW 16th 
Ave., NW 8th Ave., NW 34th St.. W. University Ave., and SW 2nd Ave.; insect 
control (within City limits); parking lots; street lights; repair and replacement 
of damaged trail segments; maintenance of creek channel (within City limits). 

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Volunteer Trail Officers These officers are supervised by the Nature Operations 
Division of the Dept. of Cultural and Nature Operations and their 
maintenance activities along trails will include trash collection, minor 
vegetation pruning and removal, minor revegetation, trail and parking lot 
sweeping, removal of graffiti, minor facility repair and replacement. 

Alachua County For areas outside the City of Gainesville, Alachua County 
will provide the City of Gainesville with a lease or an easement across County 
owned property to allow the City to develop and maintain the greenway as it 
occurs on County property. 

In the event the City or County develops any contractual agreements regarding 
any lease of any interest, the operation of any concession, any change in 
character or use from the original intent, any sale or option, any use other 
than by a member of the general public, and /or management contracts of the 
Project Site with any non-governmental persons or organizations shall require 
the City, or County, to provide a 60 day prior written notice of such agreement 
to the Florida Communities Trust. 

Listing of additional maintenance and management agents is provided in Table 6. 

FACILITY MAINTENANCE AND MANAGEMENT COSTS 

Several model maintenance and management programs exist throughout the 
United States which can serve as a reasonable guide to defining future costs for 
the Hogtown Creek Greenway. For example, Seattle, Washington spends an 
estimated $2,500.00 per mile to maintain close to 30-miles of urban greenways, 
many of which are bikeways. Boulder, Colorado spends $45,000 per year to 
maintain 5-miles of the urban, streamside Boulder Creek Greenway - a state- 
of-the-art greenway. Raleigh spends an estimated $1 1,000.00 per mile to 
maintain more than 30 miles of urban greenways that extend through a variety 
of landscapes within the community. 

In order to accurately estimate maintenance and management costs, The Team 
concludes that trail maintenance and management will require the hiring of 
additional staff, and the appropriation of funds to cover equipment purchase, 
fuel and repair. The City may choose to spread the responsibility for greenway 
facility management to a number of agencies, to match current operating 
philosophy. Thus, the following annual cost estimates serve as a guide for 
budgeting maintenance and management activities for the fully developed 
6-mile Hogtown Creek Greenway: 



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AGENCIES & INDIVIDUALS RESPONSIBLE 

FOR THE 
HOGTOWN CREEK GREENWAY 



Agency or Department 


Contact 


Responsibility 


Cultural & Nature 

Operations 

City of Gainesville 


Dr. Lemuel Moore 

Director 

(904) 334-2197 


Overall administrative 
management and development of 
the Hogtown Creek Greenway as 
described in the management 
and conceptual plan pertinent 
to the annual reporting 
procedures as set forth by 
Florida Communities Trust 


Nature Operations 

Division, 

City of Gainesville 


Steve Phillips, 
Manager of Nature 
Operations 
(904) 334-2197 


Oversees the operation of the 
Hogtown Creek Greenway, Ring 
Park and the Loblolly 
Environmental Education 
Facility, as well as other 
City Nature Preserves and 
Passive Parks. 


Parks Division, 
City of Gainesville 


Patrick Byrne, 

Superintendant of 

Parks 

(904) 334-2171 


Oversees the maintenance and 
landscaping of City-owned 
Active-Recreational land. 


Department of Community 

Development, 

City of Gainesville 


Norm Bowman, 

Director of Community 

Development 

(904) 334-2035 


Oversees implementation of the 
comprehensive plan, including 
the enforcement of land 
development regulations. 


Public Works Department 
City of Gainesville 


Emery Swear ingen, 
Director of Public 
Works 
(904) 334-2051 


Oversees engineering, streets, 
surveyors, and stormwater 
improvements . 


Traffic Engineering 
Department, City of 
Gainesville 


Brian Kanely, P.E. 
City Traffic Engineer 
(904) 334-2130 


Oversees roadway 
design/traffic engineering 
activitieswith F.D.O.T. and 
the Alachua County Public 
Works Department . 


Department of 
Public Works, 
Alachua County 


Ed Culpepper, 
Director of Public 
Works 
(904) 462-2147 


Oversees the development and 
maintenace of County owned 
park land. 


Alachua County Office 
of Environmental 
Protection 


Chris Bird, 
Acting Director of 
Environmental 
Protection 
(904) 336-2442 


Responsible for enforcement of 
environmental regulations and 
implementing the conservation 
element of comprehensive plan. 


Department of 
Growth Management, 
Office of Planning, 
Alachua County 


Kurt Larsen, 
Director, Department 
of Growth Management 
(904) 373-5249 


Oversees drafting and 
implementation of the 
comprehensive plan, including 
land development regulations. 



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Description of Maintenance /Mgmt Activity Annual Costs 

Routine stream channel maintenance (4/year) $ 8,760.00 

Sweeping/blowing debris from paved trail tread (24/year) $17,520.00 

Pick-up and removal of trash and debris (24/year) $17,520.00 

Weed control and vegetation management (6/year) $10,950.00 

Silt removal from paved trail tread and bridges (1 6/year) $1 1,680.00 

Mowing of 3-foot grass safe-zone along trail edge (36/year) $26,280.00 

Minor repairs to trail furniture and safety features $ 5,000.00 

Park Officer Patrol (bike mounted - annual position) $30,000.00 

Supplies for labor force $ 2,500.00 

Equipment fuel, repairs and replacement parts $ 7.500.00 

Grand Total 6-mile Hogtown Creek Greenway $ 137,710.00 

Cost per mile $ 19,672.85 

* will increase as project ages 

Some capital expenditures will also be required in the initial phases of 
greenway development to purchase new and specialized equipment. This would 
include for example: 

All Terrain Bike for Officer Patrol (fully equipped) $1,000.00 

All Terrain Vehicle for Maintenance Crews $8,500.00 



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GREENWAY SAFETY 
AND SECURITY 



GREENWAY SAFETY AND SECURITY 

Safety is a duty and obligation of all public facilities. Therefore, as design 
development documents are completed for the Hogtown Creek Greenway, 
appropriate local. State and Federal government agencies will review these 
plans and specifications to ensure that they meet all existing regulations that 
will ensure a safe public facility. The City Attorney and Risk Manager will 
review all final site design documents for each greenway facility to ensure that 
minimum requirements for the development of a safe public facility have been 
achieved. Greenway facilities will be designed for the user groups that have the 
highest safety needs, for this project that would be the novice cyclist, because 
of equipment and speed, and persons whose movement in the outdoors is 
dependent on the use of a wheelchair. 

In order to provide a standard of care that offers reasonable and ordinary safety 
measures, the City of Gainesville will develop and implement a Safety and 
Security Program for the Hogtown Creek Greenway. This program will consist 
of well defined safety and security policies; the identification of trail 
management, law enforcement, emergency and fire protection agencies; the 
proper posting, notification and education of the trail user policies; and a 
system that offers timely response to the public for issues or problems that are 
related to safety and security. The City will implement a coordinated effort for 
safety and security between Cultural and Nature Operations, Police, Fire, 
Public Works and Legal Departments, as well as with local neighborhood watch 
associations and Adopt-a-Greenway organizations. Important components of 
the Safety and Security Program will include: 

1) Establishment of a Safety Committee or Coordinator 

2) Preparation of a Greenway Safety Manual 

3) Establishment of User Rules and Regulations 

4) Development of Greenway Emergency Procedures 

5) Preparation of a Safety Checklist for the Greenway 

6) Preparation of a Greenway User Response Form 

7) A system for accident reporting and analysis 

8) Regular Maintenance and Inspection Program 

9) Site and Facility Development and Review 

10) Public Information Program 

1 1) Employee Training Program for Safety and Emergency Response 

12) Ongoing Research and Evaluation of Program Objectives 

The City will always discourage the general public from using any segment of 
the greenway that is under construction. Trail segments will not be considered 
officially opened for public use until such time as a formal dedication ceremony 
and official opening has been completed by authorized agents of the City. 
Individuals who use greenway segments that are under construction, without 
written permission from an authorized agent, will be deemed in violation of the 
Greenway Hours of Operation Policy. 



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GREENWAY HOURS OF OPERATION 

That the Hogtown Creek Greenway will be operated like all other non-lighted 
City park and recreation facilities; that is, open for public use from Dawn to 
Dusk, 365 days a year, except as specifically designated by City Cultural and 
Nature Operations Department. The Team recommends that individuals who 
are found to be using these facilities after dusk and before dawn, will be 
deemed in violation of these hours of operation and subject to fines and/or 
prosecution. 

GREENWAY USER RULES AND REGULATIONS 

One of the emerging safety issues in greenway trail planning, design and 
development is multi-user conflict. Typically, these conflicts are caused by 
overuse of a greenway; however, other factors may be problematic including 
poorly designed and engineered trail alignments, inappropriate user behavior, 
or inadequate facility capacity. The most effective use management plan is a 
well conceived safety program that provides the individual user with a Code of 
Conduct for the greenway, sometimes called a Greenway Ordinance. Several 
multi-purpose greenway systems across the United States have adopted 
progressive ordinances for public use. The following Rules and Regulations will 
be implemented for the Hogtown Creek Greenway. These rules would be 
displayed in both brochures and on information signs throughout the 
greenway. These rules and regulations will be reviewed by the appropriate 
authorities and legally adopted by the City of Gainesville. 

1) Be Courteous : All greenway users, including bicyclists, joggers, walkers, 
wheelchairs, skateboarders, skaters, picnickers and others, should be 
respectful of other users regardless of their activity, mode of travel, speed 
or level of skill. Never spook animals! This can be dangerous for you 
and other users! Respect the privacy of adjacent landowners! 

2) Keep Right : Always stay to the right as you use the trail, or stay in the 
lane that has been designated for your user group. The exception to this 
rule occurs when you need to pass another user. 

3) Pass on the Left : Pass others going in your direction on their left. Look 
ahead and behind to make sure that your lane is clear before you pull 
out and around the other user. Pass with ample separation. Do not 
move back to the right until you have safely gained distance and speed 
on the other user. Faster traffic should always yield to slower and on- 
coming traffic. 

4) Give Audible Signal When Passing : All users should give a clear warning 
signal before passing. This signal may be produced by voice, bell or soft 
horn. Voice signals might include "Passing on your left!" or "Cyclist on 
your left!" Always be courteous when providing the audible signal - 
profanity is unwarranted and unappreciated. 



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5) Be Predictable : Travel in a consistent and predictable manner. Always 
look behind before changing position on the trail, regardless of your 
mode of travel. 

6) Control Your Bicycle or Skates : Inattention, even for an instant can 
cause disaster — always stay alert! Maintain a safe and legal speed of 
less than 15 miles per hour at all times. 

7) Don't Block the Trail : When in a group, including your pets, use no 
more than half the trailway, so as not to block the flow of other users. If 
your group is approached by users from both directions, form a single 
line, or stop and move to the far right edge of the trail to allow safe 
passage by these users. 

8) Yield when Entering or Crossing Trails : When entering or crossing a 
trail at uncontrolled intersections, yield to traffic already using the other 
trail. 

9) The Use of Lights : When using a trail around dawn or dusk be equipped 
with proper lights. Cyclists should have a white light that is visible from 
500 feet to the front, and a red or amber light that is visible from 500 
feet to the rear. Other trail users should use white lights (bright 
flashlights) visible 250 feet to the front, and wear light or reflective 
clothing. 

10) Bad Weather : Greenway trails are mosUy in the floodplain. You should 
not use trails, especially those along the larger branches and creeks, just 
before, during, or up to several hours after periods of heavy rains. 

1 1) Don't Use this Trail Under the Influence of Alcohol or Drugs : It is illegal 
to use this trail if you have consumed alcohol in excess of the statutory 
limits, or if you have consumed illegal drugs. Persons who use a 
prescribed medication should check with their doctor or pharmacist to 
ensure that it will not impair their ability to safely operate a bicycle or 
other wheeled vehicle. 

12) Clean-up Your Litter : Please keep this trail clean and neat for other 
users to enjoy. Do not leave glass, paper, cans or any other debris on or 
near the trail. Please clean up after your pets. Pack out what you bring 
in — and remember to always recycle your trash. 

13) Keep Pets on Leashes : All pets must be kept on secure and tethered 
leash. Failure to do so will result in fines and possible detention of the 
pet. 

Share the Trail! Always exercise due care and caution when using the trail! 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

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POLICE/PARK OFFICER PATROL AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE 

In order to provide effective patrol and emergency response to the needs of trail 
users, and adjacent property owners, the City of Gainesville Police Department, 
the Alachua County Sheriffs Department and the Department of Cultural and 
Nature Operations will work together to develop a specific patrol and emergency 
response plan for the Hogtown Creek Greenway. This plan will define a 
cooperative law enforcement strategy for the greenway based on the capabilities 
of different agencies and services typically required for the facility. The City 
will develop a site plan for law enforcement and emergency response agencies 
that illustrates points of access to the trail; provides design details for making 
these access points safe, secure and accessible to law enforcement officials; 
and defines where a system of cellular-type emergency phones will be located. 
The City will also consider purchasing specialized equipment, as recommended 
in the Facility Maintenance section of this report, to improve the ability to 
access various environments of the greenway. 

The City will also define an emergency response system in conjunction with 
appropriate local Fire Stations and Paramedical units. An emergency response 
system will define which agencies will respond to 91 1 calls, and should provide 
easy-to-understand routing plans and access points for emergency vehicles. 
Local hospitals will be notified of these routes so that they may also be 
familiar with the size and scope of the project. The asphalt paved, multi-use 
trail system will be designed and developed to support a maximum gross vehicle 
weight of 6.5 tons. Other portions of the trail system, including boardwalks 
and non-paved trails, will be capable of supporting light-weight All Terrain 
Vehicles (ATV). 

MAJOR ROADWAY CROSSINGS 

The crossing of major roadways is one of the biggest public safety issues of the 
project for trail users, and will require more careful evaluation during the 
design development stage. Additionally, providing safe crossing for wildlife is 
also a concern. From north to south, the major roadway crossings identified 
by the Team at this time include: 

NW 23rd Boulevard SW 2nd Avenue 

NW 16th Avenue SW 20th Avenue 

NW 8th Avenue Interstate 75 

NW 34th Street SW Archer Road 

W. University Avenue SW 62nd Boulevard 

It is not possible to recommend a single t3^e of crossing for all intersections. 
A detailed evaluation of each crossing will be necessary in order to determine 
the safest and most efficient crossing. Several t3^es of roadway crossings will 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

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need to be more thoroughly evaluated by the City Traffic Engineering 
Department including: 

• at-grade uncontrolled intersections 

• at-grade controlled intersections 

• at-grade with median intersections 

• grade separated underpasses 

• grade separated overpasses 

At-grade intersections are likely to be the most commonly recommended 
crossing for most of the roadways. In order to facilitate a safe crossing, the 
City will need to have a "Gap Analysis" performed for each intersection to 
determine the amount of time that exists for safe trail user crossing (See Table 
7). Once the gap analysis has been completed, the City will be better able to 
understand the opportunities for at-grade or grade -separated crossings. 

Grade-separated underpasses are possible for some crossings, but will be 
difficult to install due to the high water table and frequent flooding of the 
greenway lands. Overpasses are more suitable in Florida for high traffic 
intersections. This type of crossing has been used frequently in Pinellas 
County for the rail-trail greenway. Overpass design that utilizes terraced 
ramps and which effectively channels trail users onto the overpass will 
alleviate most concerns that are typically expressed about overpasses. 
However, these are only cost effective at crossings which carry large volumes of 
greenway users, where an at-grade crossing is extremely difficult or impossible 
due to traffic hazards, or both. 

To a limited extent, wildlife crossings are currently provided by drainage 
culverts. However, detailed examination of some roadways by University of 
Florida students reveals that frequent road kills occur at several crossings, 
which may indicate the need for additional wildlife-friendly culverts to 
facilitate wildlife movement. During our evaluation of roadway crossing, the 
Team identified these areas and defined the most appropriate method for 
accommodating this need through greenway development. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville, FL 102 Management Plan 



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RISK MANAGEMENT AND LIABILITY 

Regardless of how well a greenway or any public facility has been designed and 
developed. t±iere will always be some risk associated with its presence and 
usage. Therefore the design, development and management of facilities within 
the Hogtown Creek Greenway must be carefully and accurately executed in 
order to provide a resource that protects the health and welfare of the public. 

Liability most often occurs when a facility has been under-designed to handle 
its intended or expected volume of use; when management of the facility is 
poor; or when unexpected accidents occur because the trail manager failed to 
recognize the possibilities of a potentially hazardous situation. To reduce the 
exposure to liability, the City of Gainesville will have in place the following 
measures prior to opening the first segment of the trail: 

1) a complete maintenance program that provides the appropriate duty or 
level of care to greenway users; 

2) a risk management plan and insurance policy that appropriately covers 
all aspects of the trail, and if appropriate, adjacent landowners; 

3) a comprehensive working knowledge of public use laws and recent case 
history applicable in Florida. 

Public use of the greenway will be covered under existing municipal policies for 
the use of park land and public spaces. The City will exercise reasonable care 
in the construction of all greenway facilities to reduce hazardous, public 
nuisance and life-threatening situations. The greenway is available for public 
use as defined by the Hours of Operation Policy. Any individual found using 
the trail outside the normal hours of operation will not be covered by the 
municipal liability policies for public use. 

POTENTIAL IMPACT ON MUNICIPAL INSURANCE 

The issue of liability as it relates to insurance is a common question for all 
greenway projects in the United States. The Consulting Team has investigated 
the facts of liability insurance coverage, and examined a detailed report 
completed by Mr. Timms Fowler, Esq. of Colorado, entitled " Private Landowner 
Liabilitv and Urban Trail Development in Colorado ." This is one of the most 
comprehensive reports on the subject of trail liability. The Team has also 
discussed municipal liability with representatives of the Frontier Insurance 
Company in New York, which underwrites Commercial General Liability 
Coverage for private organizations that sponsor greenway projects. 

Based on our research, the Team has found that the City of Gainesville will 
not necessarily be exposed to any greater liability through the development and 
operation of the greenway than through development of any other public 
facility -- a public gymnasium, Softball field or public park. The City of 
Gainesville Risk Manager will review all design development documents for all 
greenway facilities prior to their completion to ensure that they satisfy the 
current level of liability exposure and coverage. 

Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

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PILOT PROJECT DEVELOPMENT COSTS 

The Team and the City have given careful consideration to the results of the 
Design Charette, and a potential application for ISTEA enhancement funding 
through the State of Florida Department of Transportation. After meeting with 
both FDOT officials and the North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, 
we have selected a portion of the Hogtown Creek Greenway study corridor for a 
pilot project. Our selection is based primarily on the fact that most of the land 
is already publicly owned, and facility needs have been most clearly articulated. 
In addition, Dr. Gary Hankins has expressed interest in selling a parcel of land 
to the City, which could resolve one of the more controversial portions of the 
proposed project, enabling broader community support for greenway 
implementation. Finally, this pilot project area has to be subject to intense 
scrutiny by the local neighborhoods, therefore successful implementation of 
this pilot project location could prove beneficial to future implementation of 
other greenway Project Sites. 

The Team has selected the area between the north end of the Westgate 
Shopping Center and the Elks Club Lodge for consideration as the pilot 
project. 

POSSIBLE PILOT PROJECT FACILITIES 

The pilot project will include the purchase and development of the Elks Club 
Lodge into a trail head and cultural center for the greenway. It also proposes 
improvements to parking and facility needs of the Loblolly Environmental 
Education Facility. As a transportation improvement project, this pilot project 
will offer important bicycle and pedestrian linkages between neighborhoods, 
schools, shopping centers, enabling the City to offer local residents a choice in 
utilitarian travel. This section of the proposed greenway will also provide safe 
and designated connections to Gainesville High School. Westwood Middle 
School, and Littlewood Elementary School. It also offers the potential to link 
Alfred A. Ring Park and Westside Park with adjacent neighborhoods. Finally, a 
stormwater detention facility is proposed by the City for installation on City- 
owned property southwest of the comer of NW 34 Street and NW 8th Avenue. 
This could provide water quality improvements and flood protection for 
downstream properties. 

Facility development will include the construction of 8.600 linear feet (1.63 
miles) of a 10-foot wide off-road multi-use trail and 8,100 linear feet (1.53 
miles) of on-road bikeway and pedestrian facilities from the Elks Club Lodge 
through the Loblolly Environmental Education Facility to Westgate Shopping 
Center. Improvements to existing roadways that provide on-road routing of the 
trail will be minimal. Since this segment of the greenway will primarily serve 
nearby neighborhoods within biking and walking distance, and due to existing 
parking facilities at Westside Park. Westgate Shopping Center and public 
schools, only a small, 20-car public parking lot will need to be provided at the 
Elks Club Lodge to serve both Alfred A. Ring Park and the greenway, and a 
formal 5-car lot. will be developed at the Environmental Education Facility. 

Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 105 Management Plan 



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The only major drainage structure in this stretch will be an extension of the 
existing box culvert at Hogtown Creek and NW 8th Avenue. In addition, the 
roadway berm along NW 8th Avenue will need to be extended out from the 
sidewalk by at least 10 feet to provide for a parallel multi-use trail facility. 

Through the Possum Creek Open Space, a small portion of which is currently 
targeted for acquisition by the Alachua Conservation Trust and City of 
Gainesville, a combination of bermed multi-use trails and boardwalks will 
provide a defined route of travel from NW 16th Avenue to NW 8th Avenue. 

PILOT PROJECT COST ESTIMATES 



1 1,600 linear feet of off-road 10-foot wide multi-use trail 

6.100 linear feet of on-road bikeway/pedestrian trail 

Street crossings of NW16th Avenue 

6.000 cubic yards of fill material along 8th Avenue 

Grading for trail through floodplain 

Boardwalks through floodplain 

Addition to Hogtown Creek box culvert 

14-ft. 50 ft. long Cor-Ten Bridge @ Loblolly 

14-ft. 100 ft. long Cor-Ten Bridge @ Westgate 

Improvements to parking at Elks Club Lodge 

5-car parking lot at Loblolly Envmntal Educ. Facility 

Signage for entire route 

Plant and animal habitat restoration 

Trail Amenities 

Stormwater drainage and management 

20% Contingency 

10% Design. Engineering and CM. Fees 

5% Regulatory Permit Fees 

Grand Total $ 



$290,000.00 
$ 50,000.00 
$ 7,500.00 
$ 25.800.00 
$ 30.000.00 
$150,000.00 
$ 20,000.00 
$ 25,000.00 
$ 90,000.00 
$ 15,000.00 
$ 5.000.00 
$ 15.000.00 
$ 30.000.00 
$ 10.000.00 
$ 10.000.00 
$154,000.00 
$100,000.00 
$ 20.000.00 
1,047.300.00 



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SOURCES OF FUNDING FOR DEVELOPMENT 

The City of Gainesville has identified five sources of funding to meet the cash 
match for the FCT grant, and proceed with development of a pilot portion of 
the Hogtown Creek Greenway. 

GREENSPACE TRUST FUND - This fund was created in 1982 for the purpose of 
acquiring land for parks and greenspace in and around Gainesville. Since 
then, expenditures of $1.89 million have been made for 529 acres of parks and 
greenspace. The unencumbered balance in this fund was $326,192.00 as of 
October 1, 1991. The adopted Gainesville Comprehensive Plan mandates the 
funding level: 

City Policy 1.1.4 The City shall annually allocate for the next 10 years a 
minimum of $150,000 for the purchase of recreation sites and environmentally 
sensitive lands. These lands shall be used for recreation, conservation, 
preservation, open space, and for regional watersheds in accordance with 
criteria developed in the Recreation Element and the Conservation, Open 
Space, and Groundwater Recharge Element of the Plan. (Source: Gainesville 
Comprehensive Plan: Future Land Use Element, also Conservation Element) 

STORMWATER UTILITY FUND - Revenues from this fund are derived from a fee 
based on impervious area of developed land, and paid for by both residential 
and commercial landowners. Certain parcels along the greenway are ideal to 
acquire for multiple uses, including recreation, conservation, and stormwater 
management. Therefore, some stormwater utility funds may be used for certain 
acquisitions. Operating revenues in this fund for the City's 1991 fiscal year 
were $2. 179.000. 

MUNICIPAL BOND ISSUE - By Resolution adopted on November 18. 1991, the 
City of Gainesville has pledged $1.5 million dollars in matching funds for this 
project. All or part of these funds will be derived from a $12.4 million dollar 
tax exempt bond issue, which closed on or about March 10, 1992. The bonds 
will be issues through the First Florida Government Financing Commission 
and will be a pooled financing of four local governments: the City of 
Gainesville, Broward County, the City of St. Petersburg and the City of 
Sarasota. The City of Gainesville's portion of the bonds will be backed by a 
commitment to appropriate City non-ad valorem revenues. 

SWAP /DONATION OF LAND - In at least one instance, the City may be 
compelled to swap current City-owned land for more desirable land within the 
greenway corridor. While FCT rules do not allow for land acquired prior to 
November 4. 1991. to be included as an in-kind match for cash, in cases where 
the value of the land to be swapped is integral to the transaction, it is hoped 
that the rules will be interpreted to allow the value of the land to part of the 
City's consideration. If this interpretation is allowed, the City's participation 
would be increased by approximately $50,000. If this is disallowed, it will not 
reduce the City's ability to provide its full share of the cash match. 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gaines\ille. FL 107 Management Plan 



ALACHUA COUNTY FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION 

Alachua County agreed by Resolution 92-100. adopted October 13, 1992. to 
participate in a joint application with the City of Gainesville for Florida 
Communities Trust funding for the Hogtown Creek Greenway Project. The 
Alachua County Board of County Commissioners has agreed to fund 
acquisition of tax parcel #06909-000-000 from the Commercial Hazardous 
Waste Facilities Tax Fund #1547 in an amount up to $75,000. contingent upon 
an award of equal or greater match funding by the State of Florida and also 
contingent upon the use of a portion of this parcel to construct a road to 
provide access to the Kanapaha Botanical Gardens. The road will run from 
Archer Road to the Kanapaha Botanical Gardens at its southeastern boundary 
and link to current parking facilities at the Gardens. This road will provide 
improved access to the Gardens as well as access and additional parking to 
serve the greenway at its southern terminus. 

INTERMODAL SURFACE TRANSPORTATION EFFICIENCY ACT flSTEA) FUNDING 
As a transportation facility that promotes effective linkage between neighborhoods, 
area schools, community destinations and other transportation facilities, facility 
development of the Hogtown Creek Greenway could be eligible for funding under the 
Florida DOT ISTEA Enhancements Program. A grant application should be 
submitted to enter the proposed greenway pilot project for Fiscal Year 1994 funding 
cycle. 

ADDITIONAL POTENTIAL FUNDING SOURCES 

Other potential sources of funding for acquisition and development of greenway 

facilities could include: 

• State Conservation and Recreation Land (CARL) grants 

• Water Management District grants 

• County Bed and Entertainment taxes 

• Federal Land and Water Conservation grants 

• Impact Fees 

• Private Donations 

• Revenues from Promotional Events 

• Allocations from the City and County General Fund 

• Local Option Sales Tax 

The above programs are potential funding sources that are primarily used for 
the acquisition of lands. However, the City has committed, through its 
General Fund, for the next three years a total $159,500 for Phase I 
"development" of the Project Site. The annual allocation is as follows: 

• Greenspace Trust Fund 

• Stormwater Utility Fund 

• Allocations from the City General Fund 

• Revenues from Promotional Events 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 108 Management Plan 



PHASING PLAN FOR 
1^ IMPLEMENTETION 



n 



PHASING PLAN FOR IMPLEMENTATION 

A Phasing Plan for the Hogtown Creek Greenway is difficult to achieve because 
land acquisition is still in progress. Without the land, or rights to make use of 
properties, greenway facilities and programs become a moot point -- unless 
provided by private -sector interests. 

To secure the future success of the entire greenway, a pilot project will be 
implemented as soon as feasible. This pilot project will be feasible - which 
means "don't bite off more than you can chew." At the same time, don't 
underestimate the abilities and resources of the community. The best pilot 
greenway projects are those that have clearly defined points of origin and 
destination - otherwise regarded as end points. It is also very important that 
the pilot project exemplify the full scope and function of the community 
greenway concept. Critical mass is important in defining pilot greenway 
projects; without an ample supply of potential users the greenway facility could 
be underutilized. Therefore, location is an important consideration. Finally, it 
is much easier to develop a pilot project where a majority of land, or land 
rights, are in public ownership. 

THE PILOT PROJECT; 

The proposed estimated time line for implementing structural improvements for 
this phase is 1994 - 1998 at an estimated cost of $1.05 million. The following 
areas will be included in this phase: 

•Elks Club Lx)dge to Westgate Shopping Center 
•Environmental Restoration at Gainesville Mall 

PHASE II DEVELOPMENT: 

The proposed estimated time line for implementing structural improvements for 
this phase is 1999 - 2002 at an estimated cost of $1.5 million. The following 
areas will be included in this phase: 

•Burch Property to Green Acre Park 

•Sugarfoot Prairie to Forest Park Facilities and Programs 

•Creekside Mall to University of Florida Access 

PHASE III DEVELOPMENT: 

The proposed estimated time line for implementing structural improvements for 
this phase is 2003 - 2005 at an estimated cost of $0.75 million. The following 
areas will be included in this phase: 

•Oaks Mall Access 

•Forest Park to Hogtown Prairie and Lake Kanapaha Facilities and 
Programs 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL 109 Management Plan 



jyi 



J 
] 
1 



PHASE IV DEVELOPMENT; 

The proposed estimated time line for implementing structural improvements for 
this phase is 2005 - 2010 at an estimated cost of $1.75 million. The following 
areas will be included in this phase: 

•Lake Kanapaha Facilities and Ecotourism Programs 
•Westgate and Creekside Mall 



Hogtown Creek Greenway Master Development & 

Gainesville. FL HO Management Plan 



yv-ygjmjg- 



P 



I 
I 



I 

I 
I 
I 



[ 



Property Acquisition Status 

KJgg Acquired 
Mm Not Acquired 
[^•:- Private Preserve 



MOGTOWM CREEE 
Preferred Design Concept 



CITY OF GAINESVILLE. FLORIDA 
DEPT. OF CULTURAL AND NATURE OPERATIONS 



U ZOOOFT ^ 



Green Tree Park 




Hogtown Creek at 
Sprlngstead Creek 



Legend 

Foot Trail 
r^ Multi-Use Trail 





[Q] Park and Bike 

1^ Trail Heads 

[(^ Rest Room 

LjtJI Equestrian 

(^ Picnic Area 



Boardwalk 

Existing on/off Road 
Facilities 



ill 



MAP 13 



APPENDIX 
A 



IHOGTfOWN CEEIK GIREIENWA¥ 



ECOLOGICAL SURVEY 

& 

MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS 



11 
11 



HOGTOWN CREEK GREENWAY 

ECOLOGICAL SURVEY 

AND 

MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS 



July 6, 1993 

Peter Alcorn 
Wild Things, Inc. 

and 

Reed Beaman 
A.F. Clewell, Inc. 



Wild Things, Inc. and A.F. Clewell, Inc. conducted baseline ecological surveys throughout the 
HogtowTi Creek Greenway site. The results of those surveys are presented in the following pages. 
Some of this work was a continuation of plant and animal inventory work conducted m 1991 by 
Wild Things, Inc. 



Ill 

i 



f 



THIS SHEET INTENTIONALLY BLANK 







I 
1 







TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Preface 4 

MAP I 5 

MAP II 6 

MAP III 7 

ECOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE GREENWAY 8 

Flora of Hogtown Creek Greenway 8 

Natural Communis Types II 

Spring-run Stream 12 

Seepage Stream 12 

Blackwater Stream 12 

Upland Mixed Forest 12 

Bottomland Forest 13 

Floodplain Forest 13 

Floodplain Marsh 15 

Floodplain Swamp 16 

Basin Marsh 16 

Basin Swamp 17 

Marsh Lake 17 

Sinkhole Lake 18 

Xeric Hammock 18 

Sandhill 19 

Faima of the Hogtown Creek Greenway 19 

Mammals 20 

Birds 21 

Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish 22 

Crustaceans, Mollusks and Insects 23 

CONCLUSIONS AND MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS 27 

General Conclusions 27 

Monitoring Environmental Change in the Greenway 31 

Water Quality 32 

Soil moisture, compaction and loss levels; 34 

Plants: Community structure, composition and dynamics 35 

Photopoints 35 

Transects 35 

Plots 36 

Remote sensing 37 

Mammals: occurrences and densities 37 

Use by horses and large grazers 39 

Birds: occurrences, densities, nesting and reproductive success 40 

Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish and other organisms: 42 

Conservation 44 

Education 45 

Li\ing Laboratory 46 

Ecosystem Linking 50 

Something for Everyone 51 

APPENDIX I: List of Plant species 54 

APPENDIX II: List of Mammal species 79 

APPENDIX III: List of Bird species 81 

APPENDIX IV: List of Reptile and Amphibian species 84 

APPENDIX V: Description of Sugarfoot Fly 88 

REFERENCES 89 



u 



Preface 



J Hogtown Creek is a special place deserving of the 

11 recognition and respect that the proposed greenway 

project will afford. Discnminating between land areas on 
the basis of "environmental sensitivity" can justify 
ij unending scientific inquiry, and still the question of what 

effect human interaction has on the environment will 
remain unanswered. For most areas along Hogtown 

I Creek, the greenway project will be the best thing that 

could happen to the creek. Hopefully, this report will 
guide decisions that will result in a greenway which 

II enhances the understanding and appreciation of the 

natural world in its human visitors while protecting the 
diverse and beautiful Hogtown Creek. 



I 



II 



u 



HOGTOWN CREEK GREENWAY 

Gainesville, Florida 




Community Types 

I 1 Bottomland Forest 

Basin Marsh 
Basin Swamp 
Floodplain Forest 
Floodplain Marsh 
Floodplain Swamp 
Marsh Lake 
Spring 

Sinkhole Lake 
Seepage Stream 
Upland Mixed Forest 
Xeric Hammock 
Sand Hill 
Developed Areas 



SEE 
LEADER 



SEE 
LEADER 



SEE 
LEADER 



SEE 
LEADER 



u u iJ, 

mm 



^ 



^ 



miles 



MAPI 



HOGTOWN CREEK GREENWAY 

Gainesville, Florida 




Ecological Survey Sites 

and 
Community Types 



Bottomland Forest 



il Basin Marsh 



::: 










SEE 
LEADER 



SEE 
LEADER 



SEE 
LEADER 



SEE 
LEADER 



^ 



►,0 u„u iJi 

°o°o°o;o°c 



Basin Swamp 
Floodplain Forest 
Floodplain Marsh 
Floodplain Swamp 
Marsh Lake 
Spring 

Sinkhole Lake 
Seepage Stream 
Upland Mixed Forest 
Xeric Hammock 
Sand Hill 
Developed Areas 



NOTE: 

THE SURVEY SITES INDICATED ABOVE ARE GENERAL LOCATIONS OF LARGER AREAS STUDIED. 



MAP 11 



I 

1 



I \ 



MAP in 



ECOLOGICALLY SENSITIVE AREAS 

HOGTOWN CREEK GREENWAY 
Gainesville, Florida 



ii: 




^f 



1 



0' 



ECOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE GREENWAY 

Flora of Hogtown Creek Greenway 
I 1, The Hogtown Creek drainage basin represents a variety of mesic upland, wet flatwoods, 

floodplain and basin wetlands, lacustrine, riverine, and xeric communities. Recognized community 
i types closely parallel those defined by the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) classification 

system Many of these habitats are remarkably well represented and despite a long history of 
human impacts in and around the area, have maintained a high level of ecological mtegrity. The 
habitats encountered, though sometimes remarkably distinct, are fi"equently observed as ecological 
gradations amongst the more purely described "types", hi such cases, an observed habitat will 
more closely fit two described types more than any single type. In other cases, an observed habitat 
does not lend itself to any convenient classification. This is as much a natural variation as it is a 
result of human disturbance and consequent manipulation of land, water and vegetation. This 
point is particularly important in the present study, where a long histor>' of human occupation of, 
and interaction with the areas natural resources is evident. Areas that escape specific "type" 
designation are often some of the most interesting and their presence should be considered a benefit 
to the area as a whole. Other areas of the Hogtown Creek Greenway are represented by a mosaic 
of communities, the absolute borders of which were not described in this study. 

Descnptions of general t>pes of habitats are important to the processes of design and 
broad scale management. Comprehensive lists of plant and animal species which occur in the 
study area are also included. Knowledge of the presence of particular plants and animals will 
allow decision makers and others to more ftilly appreciate the innumerable ecotones and 
microhabitats present in the area. Simple delineation of broad habitats is useful but should not 
downplay the miportance of individual taxonomic and microsite concerns. 

The plant list (see appendix I) consists of 530 taxa, of which 468 are identified to species 
and 62 are known only to genus. Seventeen of the species we encountered are state or federally 
listed or proposed for listing as species of special concern, threatened or endangered. Many more 
of the species are considered rare or uncommon. Others are of local significance. Several species 



8 



were encountered that had not previously been documented from Alachua County and thus, a range 
extension was established. At least 55 species of exotic plants were identified (see Table I and 
Appendix I), although we are certain that there are many more. This is the most complete plant 
species list for the Hogtown Creek area to date. Nonetheless, we anticipate that the list is not 
complete and will, with time and diligence, be expanded to include perhaps an additional 100-200 
species. 

Table I. Exotic Plant Species Observed at Specific Sites 



Site* 


Species 


1 


Ewhornia crassipes 


2 


Lygodium japonicum, Oplis menus setahus, Broussenetia papehfera 


3 


Ewhornia crassipes 


4 


Ewhornia crassipes 


7 


Oplismemis setarms 


11 


Trade scantia fluminensis, Lonicera Japonica, Ardisia crenata , Nasturtium 
officinale. Oxalys corymbosa 


14 


Youngia japonica 


18 


Eremochloa ophiuroides 


19 


Ligustrum japonicum, Youngia japonica 


21 


Tradescantia Jluminensis, Oxahs sp. 


22 


Ligustrum sp., Tradescantia fluminensis, Elaeagnus pungens 


23 


Tradescantia fluminensis, Ardisia crenulata, Youngia Japonica 


25 


Ardisia crenata , Hedera helix, Xanthosoma sagittifolium. 



*site refers to numbered ecological survey sites (see Map I). 

There are many other elements of the Hogtown Creek Greenway we encountered that did 
not stand distinctly in the treatment by flora and fauna. These elements are classified simply as 
Keynote Features of the Hogtown Creek Greenway system and are summarized in the following 
table. 



Jl 



I 
I 



Site 


Keynote Species or Features 


1 


Species in fliis wetland area include water shrew, marsh rat; osprey, ducks, cools and 
inarw migratory bird species. 


2 


Remarkably large sabal palms and live oaks 


3 


Population of aquatic plant, Nuphnr lutca: birds include Terns, (ircat Blue Herons, 
galinulc, coots Other animals include alligators and gar fish (some over 2ft long) 


4 


Species include abundant nesting Osprey 


5 


Area contains unique limestone fault line in Mesic Hammock bordering remnant Sand 
Mill habitat 


6 


Area is remnant Sand Hill, an ecological succession to hammock Species include 
Gopher Tortoise and one of the tortoises favorite foods, the cactus Opuniia hiimifusa 


7 


Large individuals of Gum and Flm trees and perhaps the best seasonal population of 
Lohelia cardinalis occur where the creek becomes highly dissected. 


9 


Species include remarkably large examples of red bay tree, Persea horhonia 


It 


Species include Carex inlumescens, Bumclin reclinala var. reclinata, Arundinaha 
^igotuca, Ae.scttlux /Hivla, Hymenocallis rolafa 


12 


Area of rolling topography, dry hammock grading down to more swampy conditions 
near (he creek 


15 


Most dense concentration of poison ivy observed. Occurring in the ccotonc, Paw Paw 
{Asimina pnrvtflora) 


16 

• 


(inyhissdchia sp and other species of Xeric Hammock are well represented. Ihc XH 
is considered the climax community, originally a Scrub area, fire has been excluded 
here for manv years 


17 


Fxtcnsive Osprey habitat. Plant species include; Spironihes ccrnna, ICpiJenJrutn 
cono/isitim (both orchids), Arisoenw triphyllum, large Qucrctis virginUmn 


18 


lliis "pine island" or isolated Sand Hill habitat is unique in the greenway Area, and is 
pcrhnps one of the most fragile. It is presently home to a very dense population of 
Gopher Tortoise which have lately been heavily predated (dug up and killed) by dogs. 


19 


Species inci: Trillium rccun>aln, Anmdinaria gif^anfen, Acsailus pavia, Arisacma 
irilohn. Sahal minor; and very large specimens of Planera aquadca (Water E!m) 


20 


Marsh is dominated by Zizaniopsis milliacea (wild rice) 


21 


Species include Aesculus pavia, Spiranlhcs cermia (orchid), Acer Jloridana, 
h'orcsiicra (native privet), Crataegus unifJora, Arundinaria giganfea, Zizaniopsis 
milliacea (wild rice) 


22 


Species include swamp chestnut oak; Arisaema triphyllum. Spruce Pine (I'inus 
glabra): clubtail dragonfly (indicator species for water quality) 


24 


Ring Park species include native Rhododendron, Haw, Btmielia and niunerous other 
planted natives. 


25 


Species include the Needle Palm {Rhaphldophyllum histrix), ^^ornwort {I'haeoceros 
sp^, Jack-in-the-pulpit {Arisaema triphyllum) 


26 


Pair of Bald Hagles nesting just northeast of dike area. Nest is in one of only two tall 
pine trees available. 



10 



Natural Community Types 
I (See Map II) 

I Hogtown Creek itself represents elements of three unique riverine communities: Spring-run 

Stream, Seepage Stream and Blackwater Stream. While the Creek origmates north of Gainesville 
in the Buck Bay and Potato Patch Bay areas, the upstream portion of Hogtown Creek in the 

1 greenway, receives year-round flow from Glen Springs at 23rd Avenue and Seepage along the 

stream banks from south of 39th Avenue. And while the stream waters are typically clear coming 

I from springs and seepage, in some areas, at high flow rates, the water is perceptibly blackened 

owing to the high level of tannins present from decomposing needles and leaves. Each of these 

I elements is fiirther enhanced by physical characteristics of the creek including massive flow rate 

I changes, the streams passage through and maintenance of Floodplam Forest, Bottomland Forest, 

Floodplain Swamp, Basm Swamp, Basin Marsh and Marsh Lake. 
I Mid valley areas of Hogtown Creek arc subject to sheet-flow during periods of storm 

runoff. After reaching base level, streams shift their positions in their wide valleys with each flood 

1 

«l appearance. Following flood events, former channels remain filled with standing water, a condition 

that not only contributes to occasional increases in the "blackwater" color, but also promotes the 
I breeding of amphibians and insects, particularly mosquitoes. 

The following plant species were observed along the stream corridor. 



Canopy: Liquidambar styraciflua (Sweetgum), Magnolia virginiana (Sweetbay), Ostrya 
virginiana (Hophombeam; Ironwood), Tilia caroliniana (Basswood) 

Understory: Ardisia crenata (Coral Ardisia), Cornus foemina (Stiff Dogwood), Decumaria 
barbara (Climbing hydrangea), Hedera helix (English Ivy), Saba I palmetto (Cabbage Palm), 
Sambuciis canadensis (Elderberry) 

Herbaceous layer: Galium apahne, Loriope spicata, Oxalis sp., Thelypteris kimthii (Wood 
Fern), Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Elephant Ear) 



II 



1 



] 



Spring-run Stream 

Springs are abundant in North Central Florida and contribute unique aspects to the 
region's hydrology. Spnngs are denved from artesian openings in the underground aquifer and 
their waters are saturated with important minerals and maintain a constant temperature, thus 
contributing significantly to the stability of downstream areas for plant and animal life. 

Seepage Stream 

Seepage refers to the perennial or intermittent seasonal water courses that originate from 
shallow ground waters that have percolated through deep, sandy, upland soils. Seepage streams 
occur only in areas of marked topography. The percolation of water through the ground provides a 
natural filter, releasing water that is clean and of fairly constant temperature. The steep banks of 
Hogtown Creek between 16th and 39th Avenues are excellent examples of seepage. These areas 
are probably home to numerous insect species unique to seepage areas and unique to this area of 
Florida. 



Blackwater Stream 

These streams are characterized by their tea-colored waters due to high tannin and iron 
levels. T>'picalh-. blackwater streams result from large wetland areas with organic soils. These 
I areas act as reservoirs. They hold water and release it slowly into the stream. Hogtown Creek's 

blackwaters are probably the result of swampy areas north of the greenway isolated by changing 
water levels, holding large pools of water which are released into the creek during high water 
periods. 

Upland Mixed Forest 

This habitat type dominates forested areas in the northern portion of the greenways area, 
flanking Hogtown Creek from 39th Avenue to 16th Avenue. It occurs in several smaller pockets 
south of 16th Avenue and around Creekside Mall and Green Acres Park, although each of these 



12 



I 
1 

) sites varies considerably and represent unique habitats. This forest type also dominates the 

ll 

uncleared lands around Kanapaha basin. The more typical Upland Mixed Forest of the north is 

I characterized as well developed, closed-canopy forests of upland hardwoods on rolling hills with 

limestone near the surface and occasionally as outcrops. Wet ground and a closed canopv maintain 

II ' • 

1 1 a natural fire exclusion condition. Upland Mixed Forest habitats have been reduced dramatically 

due to residential and silvicultural developments. Much of the forests contained in the greenway 
seem to be increasingly invaded by exotic plants, a cause for serious concern if the ecological 
I integrity is to be preserved. 

Plant Species Observed 

I Canopy: Acer negundo (Boxelder), Acer rubrum (Red Maple), Broussonitia papyrifera 

(Japanese Paper Mulberry), Carya aquatica (Water Hickory), Carya glabra (Pignut Hickory), 
■ Celtis laevigata (Sugarberry), Cornus florida (Flowering Dogwood), Fraxinus americana (White 

I Ash), Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Green Ash), Liquidambar styracifliia (Swectgum), Magnolia 

grandiflora (Bull Bay), Persea borbonia (Red Bay), Pinus elliotii (Slash Pine), Pinus taeda 
(Loblolly Pine), Ouercus hemisphaerica (Laurel Oak), Quercus nigra (Water Oak), Qiiercus 

■ virginiana (Live Oak), Sabal palmetto (Cabbage Palm), Vitis rotundifolia (Scuppemong, 

' muscadine) 

Understory : Acer negundo (Boxelder), Aesculus pavia (Red Buckeye), Aralia spinosa (Devil's 

I Walking Stick), Bumelia anomala, Carpinus caroliniana (Blue Beech, Mussle Wood), 
Cephalanthus occidentalis (Button Bush), Cornus florida (Flowering Dogwood), Crataegus sp. 

j (Hawthorne), Crataegus uniflora (One-flowered Haw), Crysobalanus icaco, Euonymous 

Y americanus (Hearts a' Bustin), Gaylussacia tomentosa (Dangleberry), Hypericum sp. (St. John's 

Wort), Ilex opaca (American Holly), Itea virginica (Virginia-Willow), Juniperus silicicola 
(Southern Red Cedar), Liquidambar styracijlua (Sweetgum), Myrica cerifera (Wax Myrtle), 

I I Ostrya virginiana (Hophombeam; Ironwood), Planera aquatica (Water Elm), Prunus caroliniana 
f (Cherry-laurel), Ouercus michauxii (Swamp Chestnut Oak), Quercus nigra (Water Oak), Sabal 

minor (Little Blue-stem Palm), Sabal palmetto (Cabbage Palm), Sambucus canadensis 
I (Elderberry), Tilia caroliniana (Basswood), Toxicodendron radicans (Poison Ivy), Ulmiis alata 

I (Winged Elm), Vitis rotundifolia (Scuppemong, muscadine) 



Herbaceous layer: Ampeloposis arborea (Peppervine), Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-pulpit), 
I' Car ex sp , Chaerophyllum tainturieri, Circium horridulum (Thistle), Elaeagnus canadensis, 

Eupatorium capillifolium (Dog Fennel), Gelsemium sempervirens (Yellow Jessamine), Hedyotis 
uniflora (Fair> Footprints), Juncus effiisus (Soft Rush), Linaria canadensis. Magnolia 

J grandiflora (Bull Bay), Mitchella repens (Partridge Berry), Opuntia humifusa (Prickly Pear), 

Osmunda cinnamomea (Cinnamon Fern), Oxalis sp., Parthenocissus quinquifolia (Virginia 
Creeper), Polypodium polypodiodes (Resurrection Fern), Rubus argutus (Highbrush), Sanicula 
canadensis (Black Snakeroot), Smilax auriculata (Green Briar), Smilax bona-nox (Green Briar), 
J Smilax pumila (Sarsparilla Vine), Smilax sp., Stachys floridana (Hedge Nettle, Florida Betony), 

Thelyptens kunthii (Wood Fern), Toxicodendron radicans (Poison Ivy), Tradescantia fluminensis 
(Wandering Jew), Viola sp. (violet), Vitis aestivalis (Summer Grape), Woodwardia areolata 
I (Netted Chain Fern), Woodwardia virginica (Virginia Chain Fern) 



J 



13 



Bottomland Forest 

Occurs south of NW 1 6th Avenue in large patches frequently grading into areas of 
Floodplain Forest and other, wetter habitats. Bottomland Forests are characterized by their low- 
lying, closed canopy of tall, straight trees with either a dense shrubby understory and little ground 
cover, or an open understor>' and ground cover of ferns, herbs, and grasses. While typical 

I bottomlands are subject to only annual or semi-annual flood events, the Hogtown Creek 

bottomlands are more frequently flooded. In addition, the volume of drainage passing through the 
creek has probably been increasing steadily since the onset of major urban developments along its 
perimeter Consequently, it is likely that species diversity has been reduced and levels of exotics 
increased. Upland species are typical of most bottomland forests, but are of fairly low importance 

I in the bottomlands of Hogtown Creek. Sheet-flow is common in the these forests and has created a 

highly dynamic, braided stream course throughout the area. 

) 

Plant Species Observed 

J Canopy: Acer negundo (Boxelder), Acer rubrum (Red Maple), Celtis laevigata (Sugarberry), 

^ Liqiadambar sfyraciflua (Sweetgum), Nyssa sylvalica var. biflora (Sour Gum), Pinus elliotii 

(Slash Pine), Pinus taeda (Loblolly Pine), Quercus lauhfolia (Diamond-leaf Oak, Laurel Oak), 
Oiiercus nigra (Water Oak), Ouercus virginiana (Live Oak), Salix caroliniana (Coastal Plain 
I Willow) 

Understory: Aesculus pavia (Red Buckeye), Bidens pilosa (Beggar Ticks), Cephalanthus 
1 occidentalis (Button Bush), Euonymous americanus (Hearts a' Bustm), Sambucus canadensis 

(Elderberry), Toxicodendron radicans (Poison Ivy), Ulmus americana (American Ehn) 

I Herbaceous layer: Cypenis sp., Hydrocotyle umbellata (Marsh Penn>'wort), Mitchella repens 

^ (Partndge Berr\), Osmunda cinnamomea (Cinnamon Fern), Osmunda regalis (Royal Fern), 

Oxalis sp , Riimex crispus, Salvinia minima (Water Spangles), Saururus cernuus (Lizard's Tail), 
. Scirpus sp., Spi rode la punctata (Duckweed), Toxicodendron radicans (Poison Ivy), Tradescantia 

I Jluminensis (Wandenng Jew), Typha latifolia (Common Cattail), Wolffiella gladiata, 

Woodwardia areolata (Netted Chain Fern) 

t 

Floodplain Forest 

I These forests overlap with Bottomland Forests throughout the Hogtown Creek floodplain. 

In the southern portion of the creek system, they grade into Floodplain Swamp. Hydroperiod is the 

Jl pnncipal definmg character of this forest type. These forests are flooded for up to half of the 

I ■ 14 



growing season They are usually without standing water during the dr>' season, but seasonal 

flooding in the summer is critical to their health as well as the communities downstream. Species 

composition of this community could be severely impacted by changes in the levels and course of 

the creek. 

Plant Species Observed 

Canopy: Acer nibrum (Red Maple), Carpinus caroliniana (Blue Beech, Mussle Wood), Celtis 
laevigata (Sugarberry), Liquidambar styraciflua (Sweetgum), Ostrya virginiana (Hophombeam; 
Ironwood), Finns elliotii (Slash Pine), Planera aquatica (Water Elm), Quercus lauhfolia 
(Diamond-leaf Oak, Laurel Oak), Quercus michaiixii (Swamp Chestnut Oak), Quercus nigra 
(Water Oak), Quercus virginiana (Live Oak), Salix caroliniana (Coastal Plain Willow), Tilia 
caroliniana (Basswood), Ulmus alata (Winged Elm) 

Understory: Ae s cuius pavia (Red Buckeye), Arundinaria gigantea (Giant Cane), Asplenium 
platyneuron (Ebony Spleenwort), Carex sp., Carpinus caroliniana (Blue Beech, Mussle Wood), 
Cornus foemina (Stiff Dogwood), Crataegus unijlora (One-flowered Haw), Eleocharis sp., 
Euonymous americanus (Hearts a' Bustin), Galium aparine, Hypericum hypericoides (St. 
Andrews Wort), Juncus sp. (Rush), Juniperus silicicola (Southern Red Cedar), Magnolia 
grandiflora (Bull Bay), Planera aquatica (Water Elm), Primus caroliniana (Cherry-laurel), 
Rubus argutus (Highbrush), Sabal minor (Little Blue-stem Palm), Sambucus canadensis 
(Elderberry), Ulmus alata (Winged Elm), Viola sp. (violet) 

Herbaceous layer: Asplenium platyneuron (Ebony Spleenwort), Galium aparine, Oxalis 
corymbosa (Violet Wood Sorrel), Oxalis sp., Parthenocissus quinquifolia (Virginia Creeper), 
Rubus argutus (Highbrush), Rumex crispus, Saururus cernuus (Lizard's Tail), Toxicodendron 
radicans (Poison Ivy), Tradescantia fluminensis (Wandering Jew), Viola sp. (violet), Youngia 
japonica 

Floodplain Marsh 

At least two pockets of Floodplain Marsh were identified, both are associated with the 
Floodplain Forest south of NW 8th Avenue and one of the sites is just outside of the greenway. 
The habitat is characterized by herbaceous vegetation (typically grasses and sedges) with some 
small shrubs. According to FNAI, these areas experience regular and ft'equent inundation (250 
days per year), as well as occasional low intensity bums (every 1-5 years). These conditions keep 
invasive shrubs and trees from expanding into the marsh and, eventually excluding the grasses. 
This area max be too close to private homes to bum. 



15 



I 

1 

1 
1 

I 



Floodplain Swamp 

An extensive area of Floodplain Swamp extends from the southern edge of Sugarfoot 
Prairie to just west of SW 34th Street. The abundance of buttressed trees and high lichen lines in 
this habitat attest to the high frequency of flooded conditions. Many small areas within this habitat 
hold isolated ponds of floodwaters for long periods of time, releasmg them only as floodwaters 
return and flush them out. This re-release of leaf litter steeped water is partly responsible for the 
blackwater aspect of the creek. These isolated ponds are also critical for the reproductive cycle of 
many amphibians as well as a host of invertebrates, including mosquitoes. 

Plant Species Observed 

Canopy: Acer nibnim (Red Maple), Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Green Ash), Liquidambar 
styraciflua (Sweetgum), Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora (Sour Gum), Quercus laurifolia (Diamond- 
leaf Oak, Laurel Oak), Qtiercus nigra (Water Oak), Ulmns alata (Winged Elm), Ulmns 
amehcana (American Elm) 

Understory: Cephalanthus occidentalis (Button Bush), Itea virginica (Virginia-Willow), Lyonia 
ferruginea (Rust\' Lyonia), Myrica cerifera (Wax Myrtle), Sambucus canadensis (Elderberry), 
Toxicodendron radicans (Poison Iv>'), Vaccinium corymbosum (Highbush blueberry) 

Herbaceous layer: Carex sp., Hydrocotyle sp., Osmunda cinnamomea (Cinnamon Fern), 
Osmunda regalis (Royal Fern), Thelypteris kunthii (Wood Fern), Toxicodendron radicans 
(Poison Ivy), Woodwardia areolata (Netted Chain Fern), Woodwardia virginica (Virginia Chain 
Fern) 

Basin Marsh 

Also called Wet Prairie, Basin Marsh habitat dominates the Sugarfoot Prairie area of the 
greenway system and extends to and surrounds Lake Kanapaha to the south. The area probably 
developed in a solution depression and is fire and hydroperiod maintained. Flooding at least 200 
days per year and burning every 1-10 years has probably kept this areas from more serious 
encroachment b> other, more arboreal species. 

Plant Species Observed 

Canopy: Acer nibmm (Red Maple), Itea virginica (Virginia-Willow), Phoradendron serotinum 
(Mistletoe), Planera oquatica (Water Elm), Quercus laurifolia (Diamond-leaf Oak, Laurel Oak), 
Salix caroliniana (Coastal Plain Willow) 



16 



] 



] 



Understory: Bacchahs halimifolia (Saltbush), Berchemia scandens (Rattan Vine), Celtis 
laevigata (Sugarbern,), Cephalanthns occidentalis (Button Bush), Cornns flohda (Flowering 
Dogwood), Hypericum sp. (St. John's Wort), Ludwigia peruviana (Primrose Willow), A^r/ca 
cerifera (Wax Myrtle), Rosa palustris (Swamp Rose), Salix caroliniana (Coastal Plain Willow), 
Typha sp., Ulmus americana (American Elm), Vitis sp. 

Herbaceous layer: Rumex verticilata, Carex sp., Centella asiatica, Dulichium arundinaceum 
(Three-way Sedge), Galium sp., Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (Pennywort), Hydrocotyle sp., Juncus 
sp. (Rush), Lemna minor, Osmunda regalis (Royal Fern), Panicum hemitomon (Maidencane), 
Polygonum pensylvanicum (Knotweed), Rubus argutus (Highbrush), Sagittaria latifolia 
(Common Arrowhead), Saururus cernuus (Lizard's Tail), Scirpus sp., Sisyrinchium rosidatum, 
Smilax auricula ta (Green Briar), Typha sp., Woodwardia areolata (Netted Chain Fern) 



Basin Swamp 

Beginning just east of 1-75 and cx)ntinuing west at the lower portion of the greenway 
system. Bottomland Forest grades into Basin Swamp, and Hogtown Creek becomes highly divided, 
even in times of very dry weather. To the north, the habitat is known as Sugarfoot Hammock, to 
the south. Lake Kanapaha. It is characterized by periodic dry periods and probably bums 
occasionally. Hydroperiods are critical, as in other wetland communities, for maintaining species 
diversity and preventing catastrophic fires. Sugarfoot Hammock is home to the extremely rare and 
locally endemic Sugarfoot Fly {Nemopalpus nearcticus) (see appendix V). 

Plant Species Observed 

Canopy: Acer rubntm (Red Maple), Celtis laevigata (Sugarberry), Fraxinus sp., Nyssa sylvatica 
var. biflora (Sour Gum), Planera aquatica (Water Elm), Quercus nigra (Water Oak) 

Understory: Cephalanthus occidentalis (Button Bush), Liquidambar styracijlua (Sweetgum), 
Myrica cerifera (Wax Myrtle) 

Herbaceous layer: Ampeloposis arborea (Peppervine), Berchemia scandens (Rattan Vine), 
Campsis radicans (Trumpet Vine), Smilax sp.. Toxicodendron radicans (Poison Ivy), Vitis sp.. 
Wisteria sp. (Wisteria) 

Marsh Lake 

Lake Kanapaha is a large shallow depression lake surrounded by bands of aquatic 
vegetation but open in the middle. Lake water is derived mostly from runoff from the surrounding 
uplands, and the lake functions as an aquifer recharge source in times of drought (FNAI). 



17 



1 



1 



1 



However, water level in the lake can fluctuate in response to groundwater levels and water volume 
in the Creek. Even though water levels change significantly in the lake, it is permanent home to 
many species includmg, turtles, alligators, amphibians, fish, birds, mammals and aquatic plants. 
The shallow edge, with variably flooded marshland is important wading bird and fish breeding 
habitat. 

Plant Species Observed 

Canopy: Sabal palmetto (Cabbage Palm) 

Understory: Amaranthus australis, Andropogon sp., Scirpus sp., Typha latifolia (Common 
Cattail) 

Herbaceous layer: Brasaenia shreberi, Ceratophylliim demersum, Hydrocotyle sp., Limnobium 
spongium, Nuphar luteum (Spatter-Dock), Polygonum sp., Pontedena cordata, Sagittaha 
latifolia (Common Arrowhead), Salvinia minima (Water Spangles), Spi rode la punctata 
(Duckweed) 

Sinkhole Lake 

These deep, inverted cone-shaped depressions occur on lunestone bases, where subsurface 
solution erosion reduces the above limestone layer beyond where it can support the ground above 
it, collapses and fills with either runoff water, or groundwater. This habitat is considered 
endangered in Florida and should be protected from erosion-causing over use by hikers and bikers. 
There are two sinkhole lakes at the south end of Lake Kanapaha. 

Xeric Hammock 

An isolated area of this unique habitat occurs in Green Acres Park, where it abuts 
Floodplain Swamp \\\\h almost no ecotone transition. This habitat is an artifact of more extensive 
Sandhill areas of the ancient past and is becoming increasingly rare because of its suitability for 
development. 

Plant Species Observed 

Canopy: Pimis taeda (Loblolly Pine), Quercus geminata (Sand-live Oak), Quercus 
hemisphaerica (Laurel Oak), Quercus nigra (Water Oak) 



18 



Understory: Gayliissacia alba, Gaylussacia nana (Dangleberrv), Qiiercus hemisphaehca 
(Laurel Oak), Serenoa repens (Saw Palmetto), Vaccinium arboreum (Sparkleberty) 

Herbaceous layer: Rhyncosia sp., Smilax auhciilata (Green Briar), Smilax bona-nox (Green 
Briar), Smilax pumila (Sarspanlla Vine), Vaccmium darowii 



Sandhill 

Charactenzed by open sand, on rolling hills with longleaf pine, wiregrass and gopher 
tortoises, this area is very rare within the City limits. Fire is a dominant ecological factor in this 
community tN^pe. Frequent fires (every 2-5yrs.) help to maintain this habitat and the plants within 
it. Gopher tortois holes are abundant in this area. The area is extremely fragile and should it be 
included in the greenway trail system, it must be protected from uncontrolled pedestrian traffic. 

Plant Species Observed 

Canopy: Pinus clausa (Sand Pine), Pinus palustris (Lx)ngleaf Pine), Qiiercus geminata (Sand- 
live Oak), Quercus hemisphaehca (Laurel Oak), Quercus laevis (Turkey Oak) 

Understory: Asimina angustifolia (Narrowleaf Pawpaw), Crataegus Jlava (Summer Haw) 

Herbaceous layer: Ahstida stricta (Wiregrass), Balduina angustifolia, Berlandiera subacaulis, 
Bulbostylis sp., Centella asiatica, Cladina sp., Cladonia sp., Crotalaria rotundifolia (Rabbit- 
Bells), Dalea sp., Eriogonum tomentosum (Wild Buckwheat), Eupatorium capillifolium (Dog 
Fennel), Gaylussacia alba, Geastrum sp., Hypericum sp. (St. John's Wort), Lechia sp., Licania 
michauxii, Opuntia humifusa (Prickly Pear), Pityopsis graminifolia, Polygonella gracilis 
(Wireweed), Quercus incana (Bluejack Oak), Rhus copallina (Winged Sumac), Rhyncosia sp. 



Fauna of the Hogtown Creek Greenway 

The list of fauna generated fi^om fieldwork, personal communication and literature review 
are summarized in the tables in Appendices II, III and IV. It should be noted that these lists cannot 
include all transient species that may occasionally pass through this corridor-like aquatic 
ecosystem. To evaluate which of these species are resident, breeding, or transient in the greenway 
area at a given time will require regular monitoring. Since there has been no previous monitoring 
to form a basis of comparison, this is a crucial element if changes to the ecosystem are to be 
detected. This t>pe of work is extremely costly and, unless conducted on a fairly broad and 
mtensive basis, relatively meaningless. Some of the species occurring in the greenway are "listed" 

19 



] 



(considered rare, endangered, or of special interest) by either state or federal agencies, and some 
monies are available for research of these species. Some of these species are shown in table III. 

Mammals 

Numerous small rodents and insectivores are common in each of the habitats encountered 
along the greenway. Other, larger mammals such as armadillos and opossums are fairly common, 
while spotted skunks, striped skunks, and gray and red foxes are infrequent but known visitors to 
the area. We have three species of rabbit but they are only common in open grassy areas, such as 
the grassy fringes of Lake Kanapaha, not closed riverside habitats. At least three species of bats 
are important residents all along the greenway, consuming 1/3 their weight in insects each night. 

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are increasing in the rural areas surrounding Gainesville so the 
possibility exists of their passing through the greenway. Red and grey foxes have been increasing 
m Gainesville the last few years, and the greenway could help keep them out of urban areas. River 
otters {Lutra canadensis) were reported in the creek within the last decade. Raccoons {Procyon 
lotor) are presently very common along Hogtown Creek (without systematic sampling, we can still 
state this simply by track frequency). Although they occasionally carry rabies, their nocturnal and 
shy habits preclude problems with humans, except that unvaccinated dogs are at risk. Dogs will 
use the greenway as a hunting ground if allowed free access, and could pose a serious threat to 
mammals and fragile habitats. While larger mammals such as deer, bear, and panther are potential 
visitors to the greenway, they will not use the corridor unless extensive expansion of natural areas 
beyond human habitation are added, e.g. connection to the San Felasco Hammock area and to 
Paynes Prairie. Although the benefits of "corndor theory" (Noss & Harris 1986) to mammals is 
disputed, the occasional presence of larger mammals on the greenway will depend on future 
expansion and will be mdicative of a linear park functioning as a corridor. 



20 



Birds 

Due to the varied community t>pes found in the greenvvay, the site supports a diverse 
group of wintenng migratory and breedmg songbirds (passerines) and birds of prey (raptors). In 
addition. Lake Kanapaha and its surroundings provide excellent year round habitat for a variety of 
waterfowl, wading birds and raptors. Over 100 species were identified during preliminary field 
survey and research. This should be considered the "short list" of birds for the area (it is likely 
that local bird enthusiasts have developed far more complete lists, such as Audobon's Christmas 
counts, which will help round out the record for the greenway). Among the more significant finds 
are a pair of nesting bald eagles, occasional wood storks and the loggerhead shrike, a species which 
is declining throughout its range. Given the extensive conversion of forested and wetland habitats 
to agriculture and residential land use in areas adjacent to the greenway, this area should be 
considered cntical to the continued viability of populations of many of these bird species. 

Many migrant songbirds currently breed and nest in the mixed and bottomland hardwoods. 
The selection of this site for nesting is probably explained, at least in part, by the absence of 
human visitors to the area. The lack of human disturbance is probably also a factor in the high 
incidence of nesting in the larger interior woodland zones such as the Sugarfoot Prairie and 
Sugarfoot Hammock areas. The nparian woodlands are important for insectivorous birds such as 
swallows, robins, thrushes, and warblers, while the prairie and lake areas are critical for raptors 
dependent on small mammals, lizards, snakes and frogs. This area is close enough to the nesting 
habitats of Pa\-nes Prairie so that the open prairie species such as bitterns and meadowlarks utilize 
the area. 

Songbirds often increase in species diversity with increasing suburban development. This 
effect is largeh due to an increase in the variety of microhabitats (exotic fhiiting and flowering 
ornamental plants) and frequently provided feeders and water sources. In some cases, native bird 
species can be reduced due to the success of other species. One goal of the greenway should be to 
minimize this effect by preserving contiguous natural forest, where native passerines will be less 



21 



threatened by crowding (Stouffer & Best 1980). Studies are ongoing as to the minimum critical 
size of habitat fragments for each species. 

Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish 

The herpetofauna of headwater areas in the Hogtown Creek basin probably includes 
stream-side salamanders, e.g., Desmognathus auhculatus. Plethodon grobmani, and 
Pseudothton montanus. There is a chance that certain upland and flatwood species (e.g., 
Gopherus polyphemus. Drymarchon corias, Crotalis adamanteus, ratsnakes, Podomys 
flohdanus, etc.,) intrude into these narrow valleys from adjoining habitats but agam, systematic 
sampling would be necessary to detect them. There is nothing unique about mid-valley amphibian 
and reptile faunas. The herpetofauna includes species that are adapted to variable water levels 
(e.g., various frogs, Terrapene Carolina, Eumeces inexpectatus, Eumeces laticeps, Ophisaurus 
ventralis, etc.,). In mid-stream areas, i.e., NW 8th Avenue, impoundment of water by road 
embankments on the up-stream side of the road impacts vegetative cover and probably disrupts 
terrestrial and wetlands invertebrates, and to a lesser extent vertebrates. 

Herpetological communities in the Kanapaha basm include typical aquatics such as Siren, 
Pseudobranchus. Amphiuma, Alligator. Pseudemys. Nerodia, and probably various water snakes. 
Unusual herpetological species from this area include the rusty mud salamander (Pseudotriton 
montanus flohdanus). Described by Goin and Netting (1942, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 29:175-196), 
this salamander was initially collected in the Hogtown creek basin. The t>'pe locality was listed as, 
C Creek, on University of Florida campus, and recorded paratypes from "Hogtown Creek". Two 
of the species we list as potentially occurring in the creek (Rana capita and Notophthalmus 
perstriatus) are proposed for federal listing as Threatened species and are currently under review. 
Although not previously collected in the greenway area, they could use ephemeral pools in the 
Kanapaha basin 

The gopher tortoise is a "species of special concern" in Florida. It is declining in 
Gainesville due to habitat loss and a respiratory bacterial disease that is reaching epidemic 



22 



proportions locally. Active gopher tortoise colonies exist west of the university's Behavior 
Research Lab and in small sandy upland patches around Sugarfoot Prairie and northeast of Lake 
Kanapaha. Over 20 burrows were located at the Behavior Lab site alone. This area is rather 
isolated and does not provide a natural escape route should conditions change. If their burrow 
locations cannot be protected, therefore, translocation to other suitable sandhill sites is suggested. 
A minimum of 50' from any known burrow must be protected from all disturbance. 

The fish fauna includes perhaps 16 native species and an undetermined number of exotics. 
Notropis chalybaeus is the only representative of a traditional stream fauna; the rest of the fishes 
are typical of ponds, lakes, and sluggish streams. Dissolved oxygen levels are critical to native fish 
communities, which in turn support raccoons, ospreys, eagles, and potentially, otters. Minimum 
oxygen requirements of fish must be maintained throughout the hottest periods of the year, by 
maintaining sufficient flow-rates. We are reminded of the physics of gases m water: increasing 
temperature decreases the volume of gas held. Hence, both temperature and flowrate influence 
dissolved oxygen Native species have less tolerance to low oxygen levels than some exotic fish 
such as Tilapia. No complete fish survey has been performed, but one is suggested as essential 
baseline information. The public is usually eager to assist in regular sampling of local fish 
commumties. With check stations accessible, their catches could be useftil long-term data. 

Crustaceans, Mollusks and Insects 

Common crayfish {Procambarus paenimulanus) were observed in Glen Springs, and in 
racoon feces at other locations. An unusual crayfish occurrence {Procambarus talpoides) was 
reported in the late 1930's from a stream-side seepage area in the upper portion of Hogtown Creek. 
Other than this observation, the known range of the species is considerably north of Gainesville. 
The HogtowTi population represents the most southern known site of occurrence. The presence of 
this unusual crustacean should be confirmed and the extent of the more common species should be 
evaluated for the greenway. 



23 



Numerous native species of clams and snails (Elliptio, Elimia, Campeloma, Viviparia, 
Pomacea, etc.) as well as exotics {Corbicula, Tareba, Melanoides) have been recorded from 
Hogtown Creek, but unfortunately their status is undetermined at this tmie. It seems that this 
would be an excellent study to see what does still exist. 

No comprehensive inventory of invertebrates exists for the Hogtown Creek or adjacent 
areas. Noteworthy species include the gomphiid dragonfly {Progomphus obscurus), the nymph of 
which is an extensive stream bank burrowmg species and a good indicator of water quality ~ while 
it can tolerate moderate levels of pollution, it is quite common and therefore easily monitored. 
Some stream damselfly nymphs {Calopteryx maculata) are also good water quality indicators. 
The latter species was observed extensively on the creek bottom in the 8th Avenue bottomlands. 

Perhaps the best known insect species of the greenway region is Say's Spiketail 
{Cordulegaster sayi), a large species of dragonfly that occurs m adjacent Possum Branch and has 
attracted the attention of entomologists from around the world (Bill Maufrey, pers. comm.). 
According to Mr. Maufrey, Manager of the International Odonata Research Institute, it is very 
likely that the Possum Branch population (which happens to be the largest known in the world) is 
not the only one in the area and that the seepage dependent species may occur in the greenway 
seepage area north and south of Glen Springs. The species is currently a candidate for listing by 
the Flonda Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission (FGFWFC) and is considered vulnerable. 

Also according to Mr. Maufrey, there are two additional species who's occurrence is 
confirmed in the greenway and which are also dependent on seepage areas and are very rare. The 
Gray Petaltail {Tachopteryx thoreyi) and Furtive Forktail {Ischnura prognatha), two species of 
damselfly, have been seen in the Glen Springs seepage area. The Gray Petaltail is of particular 
interest because of its rarity, size and peculiar behavior. It is one of only three species in its genus 
(Tachopteryx) in the world (the others occuring in the pacific northwest and Japan) and has a 
wingspan of up to 6 inches. It is the only genus of dragonfly in which all the species land vertically 
on trees. It is common for the dragonfly to land on human visitors to their habitat mistaking them 
for trees. 



24 



!1 
!\ 
II 
II 
Hi 
i 
i 
K 
I 



Probably the best locally known (and least frequently encountered) of all invertebrates in 
the greenway is the Sugarfoot fly {Nemopalpus nearcticus){sQt appendix V for complete 
description). This unique fly is the only member of its sub-family known to occur in North 
America (Amoroso 1991) and the Sugarfoot Hammock location is one of only two sites from 
which it is knovsTi (the other is Gulf Hammock, Lev\' County). All that is known of this species is 
that adults are most active during the wettest part of the year, fi-om June through October. The fly 
is active during the night and rests in the bark of trees during the day. The dominant tree species at 
the fly site are sweetgum, {Liquidambar stryraci/Jna), hophombeam, (Ostrya virginiana), 
sugarberry, (Celtis laevigata), redbay, {Per sea borbonia), and swamp chestnut oak, {Que reus 
michauxii) . Without accurate field data, there is little that can be done to protect the species other 
than to leave its habitat as undisturbed as possible. This species is currently a candidate for listing 
by FGFWFC and is considered vulnerable. 



25 



Table III. Listed or Rare Plants and Animals of the Hogtown Creek Greenway 



Status* 


Scientific Name 


Common name 




PLANTS 




T4 


Asplenium platyneuron 


ebony spleenuort 


T4,T6 


Epidendrum conopseum 


greenfly orchid 


T4 


Ilex ambigua 


Carolina holly 


T4 


Lobelia cardinalis 


cardmal flower 


T3 


Rhaphidophvllum hystrix 


needle palm 


T4 


Sabal minor 


little blue-stem palm 


T4 


Selaginella apoda 


meadow spike moss 


T4 


Selaginella ludoviciana 


spike moss 


T3 


Sniilax smallii 


Jackson vine 


T4 


Thel\'pteris cf. hispidula 


aspidium fern 


T4 


Thelypteris dentata 


downy shield fern 


T4 


Thelypteris kunthii 


wood fern 


T4 


Tillandsia bartramii 


wild pine 


T4;T6 


Tipularia discolor 


crane-fly orchid 


T4 


iVoodwardia areolata 


netted chain fern 




MAMMALS 




R 


Lutra canadensis 


river otter 


T 


Peromyscus floridaii us 


florida mouse 


R 


Peromyscus gossypinus 


cotton mouse 


E 


Peromyscus nuttalli 


golden mouse 


R 


Sus scrofa 


feral pig 




BIRDS 




SC 


Anas fulvigula 


mottled duck 


TM 


Gnts canadensis 


sandhill crane 


E 


Mvcteria americana 


wood stork 


R 


Ictinia mississippiensis 


mississippi kite 


ENB 


Haliaeetus leucocephalus 


bald eagle 




HERPETOFAUNA 




SC 


Rana capito aesopus 


flonda gopher frog 


SC 


Alligator mississippi- ensis 


american alligator 


RG 


Terrapene Carolina bauri 


flonda box turtle 


RG 


Stemotherus m. minor 


loggerhead musk turtle 


SC 


Gopherus polyphemus 


gopher tortoise 


T 


Dnmarchon corais coupen 


eastern mdigo snake 


SC 


Pititophis melanoleucus mugitus 


flonda pine snake 


T 


StUosoma extenualum 


short-tailed snake 




INVERTEBRATES 




C 


Nemopalpus nearcticus 


sugarfoot fly 


R 


Ischnura prognatha 


turtive forktail 


R 


Tachopteryx thoreyi 


gray petaltail 


C 


Cordulegaster sayi 


say's spiketail dragonfly 



see appendices L II, III and IV for explanantion of abreviations. 



26 



« 



CONCLUSIONS AND MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS 

Generai. Conclusions 

It is beyond the scope of this report to provide specific recommendations regarding the 
mstallation of specific trails, boardwalks, parking areas, observation decks, or any other public 
facilities along or adjacent to the greenway. As the greenway design process progresses, the City 
will require the participation of the appropriate advisors in site specific location of greenway 
facilities. 

It is the goal of this report to provide some general management guidelines and baseline 
ecological information fi-om which designers and other decision makers can draw. There are many 
more human and cultural resources available in the Gainesville community than could be 
mentioned in a report of this scale. However, we strongly recommend that these resources be 
sought out and incorporated into as many aspects of the greenway's design, implementation, 
management, etc. as is possible. Many of these resources are already part of City operations in 
other areas and need merely be adapted to fit the specific needs of the greenway. Numerous and 
varied resources are available through the University of Florida, Santa Fe Community College, the 
high schools and other academic institutions in the area. These and many more interests should be 
incorporated in the management of this public space -- their participation will ensure a more 
effective management effort and will significantly increase the communit>' importance of the 
greenway. 

The following paragraphs describe some basic guidelines important in making 
management policy for the greenway. Most of these are drawn from observations in the field, and 
summarized in Table IV below. 



27 



Table 


IV Management Recommendations by survey sites 




Site 


Exotic Removal 


Prescribed 

BURNS 


Thinning 


Other 

E^fHANCEMENT 


Restoration 


Misc. 


1 


ves 


no 


minor 


no 


no 


Maintain open water 

: aquatic vegetation 

ratio 


2 


>es 


no 


Acer negundo. 

Broussenetia 

papynfera 


no 


no 




3 


Hydnlla 


no 


no 


no 


no 




4 


no 


yes 


no 


dike improved 


dike removed 




5 


no 


yes 


no 


no 


no 




6 


no 


yes, to maintain 


no 


yes, gopher tortoise 
habitat 


no 




7 


no 


no 


no 


yes, through cattle 
exclusion 


no 




8 


no 


yes, on prairie 


no 


no 


no 




9 


no 


yes, on prairie 


no 


no 


no 




10 


no 


no 


no 


no 


no 




11 


Nes 


no 


no 


no 


no 




12 


no 


no 


yes, poison iv'y 


no 


no 




13 


no 


yes 


no 


no 


no 


Probably not been 
burned over 20 
years. 


14 




ves 




ves 


no 


Trash pickup, bum 


15 


no 


no 


no 


no 


no 




16 


no 


yes 


no 


no 


no 




17 


no 


no 


no 


no 


no 




18 


yes 


yes 


no 


yes 


no 


Manage gopher 

tortoises and native 

plants 


19 


Eliminate feral pigs 
and dogs 


no 


no 


no 


no 




20 


no 


if possible 


no 


no 


no 




21 


yes 


no 


no 


no 


Repair of bike 
damage 


Sheet flow not 
interrupted 


22 


\es 


no 


no 


yes 


no 




23 


\es 


no 


ves 




no 




24 


no 


no 


no 


no 


no 




25 


spot herbicide & 
manual removal of 

Ardisia crenulata 


no 


no 


yes 


yes 





In general, certain practices should be avoided throughout the greenway, e.g., tree cutting, 
removal of snags and stream logjams, or other ecologically disruptive maintenance practices. 
Activities to be encouraged include debris and trash removal (possibly using a volunteer system 
sunilar to that employed by FOOT along highways), some thinning in areas of early secondary 
plant development, the removal of exotics wherever it is feasible and the removal of all domestic 
dogs and cats encountered. All trash should be carefully defined as glass, plastic, paper, and other 
human made products, and not including natural wood, fallen trees, native rock, etc. No motorized 
vehicles (except for emergencies) should be allowed in any part of the greenway. 



28 



I 

Facilities, trails and other structures should be designed to cause as little ecological 

I 

disturbance as possible during construction. This point cannot be overemphasized. There are 
■jl many areas throughout the greenway that may be able to support certam kmds of structures and 

activities, but which could be severely impacted by construction equipment and the process in 
11 general. Beyond this central concern, structure designs should be balanced between durability of 

structures and compatibilitv with functionmg ecosystems. 

In the event that greenway designers attempt to provide a "hard rock" crossing of the Creek 
for mountain bikes, the following measures are recommended. Connectivity should not be limited 
for mobile aquatic organisms; silt traps should be installed to reduce or eliminate addition of silt to 
I the creek; access to the structure should be designed in such a way as to minimize the possibility of 

bank erosion. It is conceivable that such a crossing could work with minimal effects to the health 
of the creek. However, any such structure should be proposed as experimental and its effects 
carefully monitored before widespread use is considered. One notable potential benefit of such a 
structure may be to minimize other off-trail use simply because some "more challenging" features 
would be provided within the greenway framework. 

All areas of HogtowTi Creek are sensitive to human disturbance (see Map III). Headwater 
areas are perhaps more ecologically sensitive to human disturbance than the other two regions 
(midstream and prairie/lake), although this is partially due to the fact that headwater areas are 
generally confined to steep banks, and the narrow stream valleys and the soft ground in slope 
seepage In these areas, recreational structures should be kept to a minimum and away from the 
stream and stream banks whenever possible. Heav>' use will exacerbate stream bank erosion and 
increase sedimentation rates. Offsite factors from surrounding residential, commercial, and public 
uses are more acute in these areas and will need to be routinely monitored to insure that aesthetics, 
human health, vegetative cover, and rare species are not compromised. 
I Midstream areas are subject to sheet flow during periods of storm runoff. Stream channels 

meander widely over the floodplain valleys with each flood event. Former channels are abandoned 
and the character of the stream takes on a braided appearance. Recreational structures built under 

29 



these unstable conditions can be compromised with changes in the valley. This condition might 
encourage designers to attempt to over-stabihze structures. However, any such structures that 
disrupt sheet flow should be discouraged. Sheet flow, as it occurs presently, leaves behind 
numerous small pools which are used by amphibians and insects (including various mosquito 
species) for breeding. Structures or practices (such as chemical application for mosquito control) 
that interfere with this process should be avoided. Erosion, except for ver>' localized areas, does 
not appear to be a major consideration. These areas require little direct management. 

Kanapaha Prairie and Lake, and associated features, require intensive onsite management, 
particularly prescribed fire. Fires are needed in the prairie as well as some of the more woody 
swamp habitats along the perimeter to maintain the open aspect. Fires should be excluded from 
surrounding hammocks, and other management methods should be explored to maintain these 
areas. All prescribed bummg must follow the specific guidelines set out by the "Five Year Fire 
Management Plan for Momingside Nature Center" (Johnson, 1990). We recommend that a similar 
five year fire plan be developed for greenway areas for which fire is a necessary ecological 
component. As is the case at Momingside, natural fires (caused by lightning) will probably have 
to be treated as wildfires in the greenway and put out. If a long-term plan for prescribed bums is 
not developed for the greenway, there is a risk that over-fiaeled fires could start and threaten areas 
outside of the greenway or ignite a muck fire. 

Grazing ammals could be used in some of the prairie and wetland areas for groundcover 
maintenance, but should be excluded from all forested areas. The City, Count>' and DNR staff 
biologists should be consulted conceming methods for the management of mesic hammocks, as 
well as praine habitats. A number of areas where exotic plants are over-abundant are indicated in 
Table IV. If herbicides are used, care should be taken to avoid contamination of the creek. A 
better method ma\ be to remove plants manually with the help of volunteers. 



30 



Monitoring Environmental Change in the Greenway 

Perhaps the strongest recommendation we can make is that the baseline floral and faunal 
survey work we have begun be mtensified and completed for the entire greenway area in order to 
accurately determine what natural resources exist. Without this work, monitoring ecological 
changes in the greenway will have little relevance. At the same time, it should be pointed out that 
additional, experimental approaches should also be pursued (see Education section). Much of the 
approach to monitoring proposed here incorporates methods that promote further inventory work — 
at the same time providing a snap-shot ecological view of particular sites, species or conditions. 
Principal in this approach is the inclusion of existing city experts (particularly Larry Johnson of 
Cultural and Nature Operations) and programs (such as that for prescribed burning), as well as 
non-City groups (such as university ecology classes and various garden and bird clubs), in the 
implementation of monitoring systems. 

The specific goals of a monitoring program are: (1) to establish a firamework through 
which biological and ecological changes can be readily observed; (2) to interface the greenway- 
specific monitoring programs with experts and programs now employed by the City, and to fiarther 
interface with vanous non-City experts and resources; (3) to design monitoring studies in a 
manner that facilitates further inventory of the flora, fauna and other natural resources of the area; 
(4) to make all monitoring as cost and time efficient as possible; and (5), to make ecological 
evaluation, through monitoring, an integral part of the greenway experience through education. 

Monitormg can be expensive and unproductive if not designed and conducted in an 
appropriate and efficient manner. Monitoring for the sake of monitonng should be avoided for 
more common-sense options. Given this, it should also be understood that there are no simple or 
quick solutions to momtonng ecological change in an area as ecologically varied as the greenway. 
The fact that the greenway is linear (with a massive edge:core ratio) and bordered on so many sides 
by so many different human activities, makes the challenge even greater. Clearly, some creative 
solutions are necessary. Two additional points should be made here. First, the best safeguard to 



31 



I 
I 

1 



i 
i 



keeping the greenway's ecological integrity intact is to keep human disturbance to a minimum. 
This can be achieved by identifying the most appropriate areas in which human activity may be 

jD located and controlled. And second, monitoring and maintaining the gross ecological integnty of 

the system (rather than any one specific aspect or species) will have the effect of keeping the 
system habitable for most of the plants and animals that live in the area. This latter point is 
justified by the extraordinanly high cost of sampling mammals in particular. The emphasis of this 
study is on monitoring their habitats rather than their actual numbers at any given time, although 

Ijl' this too is provided as a long-term option. 

With the above goals and notes in mind, the overall greenway monitoring program should 

IJJ seek to regularly evaluate the following aspects. Plant community structure (includes ratio of open 

water to vegetated water on Lake Kanapaha), composition and dynamics; hydrology (flow rates, 
water levels, water quality, charactenstics and sources of runoff; erosion and siltation rates); soil 
moisture levels; mammal occurrences and densities; bird occurrences, densities, nesting and 
reproductive success; exotic plant and animal densities; impacts of trails and trail use by different 
user groups (pedestrians, bikers, equestrians). These more specific monitoring options are 
summarized below and specific types of monitoring and the respective locations are indicated in 
Table V. 



i 



1 
i 
I 
i 
II 



Water Quality 

The h\ drolog\' of Hogtown Creek (flow rates, water levels, characteristics and sources of 
runoff; erosion and siltation rates, ) and water quality are of critical importance to the health of the 
Hogtown Creek ecosystem. Even though it appears that the creek is in remarkably good condition 
following years of uncontrolled runoff, pollution and general abuse, no one has ever attempted to 
maintain or improve the creek ecosystem. This is a significant challenge, one that will require 
incorporatmg all of the above water management aspects. 

Water quality' is a key consideration for all vertebrates that need to drink, and especially 
those that find their food in the wetland itself (e.g. wading birds, raccoons, kingfishers, raptors). 



32 



and those that are wetland-dependent (most reptiles and amphibians). While aquatic vegetation 
responds most readily to phosphorus and other nutrients, measurements of water quality relevant to 
animal health do not focus on nutrient availability, but on disavailabilities and toxicities. The 
important considerations in this creek system include: minerals (pH, salinity, conductance), heavy 
metal concentrations, turbidity, and flow rates (relative to dissolved oxygen). All of these variables 
can be simply measured in the field, and should be monitored as construction of pathways 
continues. 

Signs of severe and sudden fluctuations in volume and flowrate were detected, probably 
due to the numerous runoff inputs, many of which collect rainwaters on paved surface and deliver 
it quickly to the creek. Most native vertebrate stream fauna cannot tolerate frequent changes of 
this magnitude; young and nesting habitat are lost to erosion and chemical changes in the water, 
however temporary they may be. Flow (and the concomitant patterns of turbulence, siltation, and 
temperature fluctuation) is the "major limiting factor to stream life" (Odum 1971). Flow meters 
are inexpensive, unobtrusive, and are recommended to be installed above important runoff entry 
points to the stream, with the goal of stabilization or at least predictability of hydrological regime. 
While offtakes of water that lower the stream level are less common, they too should be regulated 
towards the above goal. Logically, a broad-scale cleanup effort should consider toxic inputs and 
regulate dumping at all points along the stream system. Wading birds and raptors are particularly 
susceptible to eggshell thinnmg from exposure to organochloride residues from common pesticides. 
Of many bird species tested in Florida, several present on the greenway have significantly shown 
this debilitatmg effect (anhinga, great blue heron, black-crowned night heron, and wood 
stork)(Ohlendorfetal. 1979). 

This stabilization of hydrological regime does not rule out natural fluctuations. In this 
subtropical climate, seasonal and even daily vanation in flow is natural and essential to the success 
of invertebrates and fish (Muller 1974). Other important variables simple to monitor are siltation 
rates and ts'pes, and evapotranspiration rates. The latter determines the relative humidity of 



33 





n 





n 

II 
1 



microhabitats important to invertebrate development, and hence to the insectivorous bats, shrews, 
rodents and birds. 

ll Momtoring of adjacent off-site activities e.g. pesticide spraying, drainage, etc., in order to 

protect project area resources should be considered. This can be checked to a certain degree 
through policing efforts, but should be quantified through monitoring of water quality. 

Water quality can be effectively, albeit crudely, monitored by sampling certain species of 
benthos. The nymph of the gomphiid dragonfly (Progomphus obscurus), an extensive stream bank 
burrowing species, is a good indicator of water quality ~ while it can tolerate moderate levels of 
pollution, it is quite common and therefore easily collected. Some stream damselfly nymphs 
{Calopteryx maculata) are also good water quality indicators and should be monitored. Both of 
these insect species are abundant on the creek bottom in the 8th Avenue bottomlands. Minnows 
(Notropis chalybaeus), would also be an excellent candidate for monitoring since it is susceptible 
to changes in water quality and temperature. Densities of native versus exotic clams would also 
provide interesting information on the response of competing species to changes in water quality. 

Soil moisture, compaction and loss levels; 

Soil moisture levels should be monitored in selected areas around Lake Kanapaha in order 
to determine the humiditv' of microhabitats for shrews, bats, rodents, birds and soil dwelling 
insects. Soil compaction studies should be conducted on and adjacent to the different greenway 
trail types and other structures. These data will help quantify the impact of both on and off trail 
use by visitors on the soil structure and the consequent effect on soil dwelling creatures. Different 
trails will probably allow different user types (pedestrians, bikes, horses, etc.) and measures of soil 
compaction should be undertaken for each of these user types. Soil loss along trails and adjacent 
to structures should be measured throughout the greenway system. There are simple methods for 
domg this and these should be employed. In addition, siltation rates should be measured in creek 
areas as a component of soil loss, water quality and direct erosion monitormg. 



34 



Plants: community structure, composition and dynamics 

Several approaches are proposed in this section, all of which address the diversit>' of 
community t\pes, ecological problems and existing research programs. 

Photopoints 

The establishment of permanent photopoints throughout the greenway will allow for 
regular gross evaluation of the condition of the communities in which the points are established. A 
simple post and camera platform (with photo direction indicated on surface) would serve this 
purpose well and could also be set up as an educational tool for passersby as well as organized 
tour groups. Over time, a display of seasonal or annual photographs could be displayed adjacent 
to specific points or a collection could be displayed in an education center. Photopoints represent 
an excellent mexpensive means of evaluating change m vegetation characteristics, including cases 
of exotics removal and native vegetation enhancement. 

Transects 

Transect studies are recommended for areas in which ecotones (gradations or intersections 
between two or more community types) occur, or where other distinct physical features intersect or 
pass through a natural area (this includes Hogtown Creek as it meanders through various 
community types and trails which exist now and those which will be installed for the greenway). 
Belt transects are proposed similar to those already conducted by Larry Johnson (Johnson 1992). 
Transects of this type are particularly effective in measuring changes in the forest structure of a 
community' and the gradation of changes, if they occur, at varying distances from a given point 
(e.g. a trail). Approximately 20, 5 m X 100 m transects should be distributed in a stratified 
random manner perpendicular to the creek. Plant identity (species) and size (DBH - Diameter at 
Breast Height) should be collected for trees larger than 20 cm DBH over the entire transect. On 
half the transect (5 m X 50 m), the same data should be collected for trees greater than 10 cm DBH 
but less than 20 cm DBH. On one fourth the transect (5 m X 25 m), the same data should be 
collected for plants greater than 5 cm DBH, but less than 10. For plants less than 5 cm DBH, 3 



35 



randomly located (within the transect) subplots 2.5 m X 5 m should be used in the same manner as 
above. 

Transects should be permanently marked with pieces of re-bar at either end and 
temporarily marked with bamboo or plastic stakes every 5 m. Photopomts should be established at 
each end (no platform is necessary if photographs are taken from above re-bars). Transects should 
effectively evaluate the forest (or other habitat) structure as well as provide information about the 
density of exotic plants. 

Plots 

Plot studies are recommended for certain areas of the greenway supporting distinct and/or 
unique habitats Plots can be designed to accomplish many different goals and consideration 
should be given to each site before a plot is installed. Greenway plot studies, in general, should be 
approximately 20 m X 20 m, and designed for monitoring at two year time intervals and should 
monitor vegetative structure, composition and dynamics. Plots can also be used to evaluate area 
responses to prescribed bums and exotics removal. Specific plot design should reflect specific 
goals of particular areas. A coordinative effort is suggested, between Cultural and Nature 
Operations and the University of Florida faculty of Botany, and/or the faculty of at least one high 
school in the area (P.K. Young or Gainesville High School). 

Within plots, all trees should be identified, mapped, measured and tagged. All smaller 
individuals (m subplots) should also be identified, mapped, measured and tagged. Over time, such 
studies will indicate reproductive successes and failures of the included species and will show 
specific trends in the particular community — whether certain species are becoming more dominant, 
whether other species are being excluded, etc. The knowledge gained from these studies will tell 
researchers whether the habitat suitability for particular animal species is increasing or decreasing 
or remaining constant. The long-term goal is to be able to make management decisions based on 
these (and other) fmdmgs. 



36 



Remote sensing 

Aerial photography/remote sensing is recommended as a means of monitoring vegetative 
cover on Lake Kanapaha. The importance of maintaining an even ratio of closed (plant covered) 
to open water surface cannot be over-emphasized. Numerous wading birds depend directly on the 
aquatic life they harvest from Lake Kanapaha. In addition, a variety of shoreline rodents also 
depend on insects and amphibians whose populations depend on the proper water:vegetation ratio. 
The rodents, in turn, become the meals of raptors and larger mammals surrounding the lake. Thus, 
a proper balance at the lake surface is critical throughout the food chain of the southern end of the 
greenway. Annual or semi-annual overflights are conducted by FDOT and could provide adequate 
information to determine the status of the lake surface. It is very likely that this could be 
accomplished for not only Lake Kanapaha but for the entire greenway (for other vegetation types) 
through the Remote Sensing department at the University of Florida. 

Mammals: occurrences and densities 

A mammal species list based on signs, such as tracks, feces, vegetation damage, etc., was 
completed However, no baseline data on population sizes have been collected. Therefore, any 
monitoring efforts to detect change would require this baseline information first. Mammals can be 
sampled in a variety of ways; if the goal is a fairly good estimate of present densities, not actual 
numbers, then samples based on trap grids or transects are the most efficient, conducted at least 
twice/year to account for seasonal variation in mobility. Small mammals are trapped in live traps 
or snap traps, which must be set on a grid of a scale appropriate to the mobility of the species of 
interest and with an appropriate bait (Swift & Steinhorst 1976). Trap grids must be set over a 
known area, the size of which depends on its heterogeneity as small mammal habitat. Bats are 
sampled by placing mist nets over streams, by pillowcase around, or hidden camera in, known 
cavities or other roosting sites, and by estimates of flock size when mass exits can be observed. 
Larger mammals such as raccoons, foxes, and deer can be sampled for relative density by track 



37 



counts. Wherever sandy open ground exists, which occurs ver> frequently along Hogtowoi Creek, 
tracking pits can be marked and monitored by regular sweepmg and then counting the next 
mommg. This type of data collection site is popular with visitors, if a pictonal guide to tracks is 
provided, but it must be protected from human interference if it is to be used by mobile mammals 
in a representative way. It is costly and dangerous to attempt trapping of the medium to large 
mammals. 

The "meso-mammals" (3-8 kg.) can be maintained with simple preservation of treefalls and 
cavities, and some undisturbed banks of a stream system supporting healthy invertebrate 
populations (crayfish and snails are important food items). Bats are sensitive to a minimum area 
and density of trees, so partitionmg some already small woodlot parcels would negatively impact 
some bat populations. River otters were anecdotally reported in Hogtown Creek about 30 years 
ago and again within the last ten years (Hutchinson, pers. comm). The return of river otters, 
muskrats, and water rats (which are not disease-carr\'ing pests like Norway rats) would require 
enhancement of waterflow and stream width in upper parts of the creek system. This seems to be 
and should be a desirable and feasible goal. They require healthy shellfish populations and some 
native reeds. 

Small rodents and insectivores are common in each of the habitats encountered along the 
greenway. These animals are very susceptible to human disturbance: burrows and tunnels in grass 
are compressed by footpaths and soil compaction, seed and invertebrate food caches are lost to 
erosion, and nesting habitat is "cleared" (unsightly twig and leaf litter). The herbaceous layer is of 
crucial importance to these species, for food species and for cover fi^om raptor predators. 

Again, a baseline survey of densities of rare and common species is needed first, then a 
monitoring plan can begin to be conducted. Trapping grids should be set in a few isolated areas of 
large habitat segments, where human visitors won't disturb them, and they can be set for one week, 
twice a year, to record relative changes in frequency of the trapable species. A good compromise 
grid scale for the species here would be a 15m x 15m grid of Sherman and Museum Special traps 
over a 1 ha plot in each habitat. Mark-recapture studies after several years yield good relative 

38 



densities, but must be conducted systematically and consistently to meet statistical assumptions. It 
must be noted that some small mammals are "trap-shy" and not well represented by any known 
sampling method except complete clearing and removal, obviously mappropriate techniques for 
this project. Also, small mammals varv much more rapidly and drastically in population sizes over 
the course of seasonal and short-term habitat variations, so monitonng might not be useful until 
several years of data can be compared. Yet a few sensitive species should be watched as indicators 
of degradation, e.g. weasels, woodrat, golden mouse. 

Care and vigilance will be required to maintain the small mammal communities present in 
some of these woods (Gottfried 1 979), notably those where soil compaction and urban runoff 
toxicities are a problem A hazard already threatening small mammal communities and the gopher 
tortoises (see Other Vertebrates), and that is sure to increase, is domestic predators. Dogs and cats 
will probably increase in presence on the greenway as connectivity and access points are increased. 
Packs of dogs grow in numbers when they can roam, and traveling a linear corridor gives them 
more access to each habitat than they currently have. This problem could eliminate several species 
unless strict leashing rules are enforced and fencing is provided along residential properties. Cats 
often reach densities where trapping them is the only effective means of discouraging their presence 
in the natural areas. The Gainesville Humane Society shelter will take cats and dogs not restrained 
by their owners. 

Use by horses and large grazers 

Horse trails are best if cleared of branches up to 15 feet high. They should be about six 
feet wide and on a base that is soft but durable enough to support these 1,000-1,800 lb. creatures. 
Erosion along horse trails is a distinct possibility, so trails should not be installed on slopes or near 
marshy areas. 

The open prairie areas north of Lake Kanapaha need to be maintained by either frequent 
fire or grazers. The latter may be easier and safer. Either privately owned horses or bison from 
Payne's Prairie would be suitable and probably aesthetically pleasing to most greenway visitors. 



39 



However, horses require generally very expensive fencing and buffalo require more area than is 
currently available. Only 3-4 beasts could be sustained and would need to be exchanged frequently 
with the Payne's Prairie herd. 

Birds: occurrences, densities, nesting and reproductive success 

The highest diversity of bird species will be maintained if; ( 1 ) vertical heterogeneity is 
maintained (ground herbaceous cover, shrubs, saplings, mature trees and vines); (2) the mosaic of 
different aquatic microhabitats (various depths of water with emergent vegetation) are protected, 
and (3) the various nesting habitats currently used are not disturbed (Stouffer and Best, 1980). 

Maintaining natural vegetation structure and heterogeneity should be considered an overall 
management recommendation. Not only will this practice provide the most usable habitat for the 
greenways bird species, but it will also support the most diverse array of mammal, and reptile 
species. This structure is effectively monitored by the photopoints and vegetative transect 
sampling. 

Wading birds and raptors, being high on the food chain (piscivorous, carnivorous) are 
most vulnerable to disturbance: they need more area in which to collect food, they have more 
specific nesting habitat requirements, are territonal, and exist at lower densities than the 
passerines. To maintain the presently healthy populations (barred owl, red-shouldered hawk, bald 
eagle and osprey are breeding in the greenway, while vultures, other owls and hawks are frequent 
visitors), the important vanable to watch is the ratio of open water to marshy shoreline (Segal, et 
al., 1987). An open lake with no marshy shore, e.g. a sinkhole, will only support ducks. It is the 
shallows full of minnows and insect larvae that keep the wading birds healthy, and support small 
rodents and amphibians which support raptors. The total area of Lake Kanapaha should not 
decrease, nor the upland shore around it be dried out at all for the sake of paths and parking. 
Human impacts in this region should be limited to a discrete boardwalk that circumvents the 
nesting habitat (tall reeds and sedges) and does not impact the shallow water habitat with much 
shade or pollution. 



40 



Bald eagles require solitar\' tall pine trees; a few suitable examples exist around Lake 
Kanapaha and Sugarfoot Hammock and these should not be disturbed. There is one active bald 
eagle nest on the greenway, just northeast of the old dike in Sugarfoot Hammock. This nest is at 
least five years old and sits m one of the only two tall pines suitable for eagle nests in the 
immediate area and should be considered a high prionty for protection. The nest is officially 
registered with the US Fish and Wildlife Dept. (USFW#AL55) and their guidelines for protection 
should be carefijlly followed. According to USFW, a primarv' zone of "no disturbance" should be 
established in a 750' diameter around the nest tree. In addition, a secondary zone, 1500' in 
diameter, should also be established. This latter zone allows only minimal disturbance and "no 
development that will interfere with the eagle's ability to freely access it's hunting ground. We also 
recommend that a letter of compliance be filed with USFW early in the design and construction 
process in order to assure proper compliance, avoid nest abandonment and consequent federal law 
suits. Obviously, any trails or structures in this area should be very carefully considered. A 
distant observation deck is recommended for visitors and for monitoring. Ospreys require any tall 
solitary' base, includmg power line towers, so they have abundant nesting habitat available. Of 
prime concern should be the wading birds, which nest in the tall reeds in the marshy fringe of Lake 
Kanapaha. This fringe must not be diminished or walked through, as they are shy and easily 
disturbed even to the point of abandoning nests. As mentioned before, all dead tree snags should 
be maintained for cavity-dwellers, and so small songbirds have plenty of choices of hardwood 
stands in which to nest. 

Monitoring bird species occurrences, densities, nesting and reproductive success can best 
be accomplished through the assistance of local bird enthusiasts. Some of these groups and 
individuals are alreadv' involved in annual bird counts for areas within the greenway and would 
probably be enthusiastic about producing counts specific to the greenway and including all areas, 
as well as specifics about numbers of juveniles, territorial males, etc. A more thorough systematic 
sampling of passerines can be obtained from repeated strip transects and mist netting, but these 
techniques require expertise, patience, and some capital outlay (Conner & Dickson 1980). If the 

41 



objectives are to determine abundances, then systematic nest and call counts should be performed. 
As with mammals, there are some inconspicuous species that are impossible to monitor without 
extensive financial and time outlay, but the rest are feasibly counted and indicative of habitat 
preservation and disturbance levels. 

Birds on open water are easily and accurately censused. Carefiil counts should be 
conducted four times per year to note any changes in resident or migrant species before they 
become permanent changes. The prairie region should be censused seasonally as it is a stopover on 
the route of migrating sandhill and even possibly whooping cranes (now being successfully 
reintroduced to Flonda). 

Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish and other organisms: 

The gopher tortoise represents one of the few species occurring within the greenway that 
will benefit from direct management. All gopher tortoise areas should be marked with clear signs 
warning of penalties for harassment. No structures should be allowed within a 50 foot radius of 
any existing gopher tortoise burrows. Otherwise, as long as the burrows and food plants are not 
disturbed, tortoises are not incompatible with tourist use of areas around the habitat. In fact, 
exposure of the public to this rare, but visible colonial species can be a great educational 
attraction. Dogs pose the most serious threat to their continued success, and must be strictly 
leashed in these areas. Four freshly dog -excavated gopher tortoise burrows were discovered in the 
Sand Hill commumty. Additionally, alterations of hydrologic regime that might cause flooding of 
their sites should be prevented whenever possible. At least one of the gopher tortoise areas should 
be mcluded in a plot study in order to evaluate their population densities and the abundance of 
important food plants. 

A few other species merit special monitoring attention. Among these are the dragon and 
damselfl%' species mentioned earlier. These species are extremely rare and could be adversely 
affected by construction of boardwalks in the sensitive seepage areas. A greenway specific 



42 



entomological survey should be conducted by qualified entomologists, either on a volunteer or 
professional basis Mr Maufrey (mentioned earlier) could facilitate this effort. 

As noted m an previous section, an isolated population of crayfish (Procambarus 
talpoides) was reported in the late 1930's from along the upper portion of Hogtown Creek. A 
survey should be conducted to determine whether this species is still extant in the Creek system. In 
addition, the rusty mud salamander {Pseudotriton montanus floridanus) was collected in Hogtown 
Creek in 1942 and a similar survey should be conducted to determine its status. 

In general, snakes, salamanders, skinks, frogs, toads and numerous other organisms 
frequently inhabit standing and fallen dead trees, fallen branches and detritus on the ground or in 
the creek. These potential microhabitats should not be disturbed. 



Table V Type of Momtonng and Respective Sites | 


Site 


PP 


TR 


PT 


TP 


Other 


Notes 


1 


X 












2 










X 


Soil Moisture 


3 


X 


X 










4 


X 






X 






5 




X 


X 








6 


X 




X 






Monitor after exclusion of cows 


7 


X 




X 








8 


X 












9 


X 


X 








PP for burn areas, TR for ecotone of Prairie/forest 


10 










X 


Water quality and H\drolog\ 


12 




X 


X 








13 


X 










PP at perimeter 


14 




X 


X 






TR for burn areas 


15 














16 


X 




X 






PP for bum areas 


17 




X 


X 






PT to monitor levels of litter influ.\ 


18 


X 




X 


X 






19 




X 








TR perpendicular to creek 


20 


X 






X 




PP of marsh from edge 


21 


X 










PP from road down stream 


22 






X 








23 










X 


Water quality through benthics densities 


24 


X 












25 


X 










PP both up and down creek from earthen ridge 



TP= Photopomts, TR= Transects, PT= Plots, rP= Track Plots 



43 



f 

I 



Conservation 

The Hogtown Creek Greenway is large and varied enough to support numerous activity' 
levels. Conservation areas are suggestive of a low human use level. Generally, moving from north 
to south and east to west, the level of conservation increases. The immediate creek corridor, 
springs, seepage areas, the Xeric Hammock and Sand Hill communities, are also very sensitive 
areas. Conservation areas of highest priority are in the western and southwestern portions of the 
greenway, and include all ecologically sensitive areas (see Map III). Sugarfoot Prairie, Sugarfoot 
Hammock and the west side of Lake Kanapaha are considered areas of high conservation value. 
The central cores of these areas should not be included in any general use plan for the greenway. 
The principal basis for this designation is that these areas are important migrant and resident bird 
nesting areas. However, the designation does not mean that the areas cannot be visited by humans. 

Conservation areas require more limited access by people. Visitor access should be 
restricted to predetermined points and trails. No structures, except for scattered observation blmds 
and possibly a discrete observation tower, should be constructed. No bicycles or domestic animals 
should be allowed in these areas. In the eastern and northern greenway sites, where people need 
not be excluded, more restrictive barriers should be constructed in order to protect certain areas, 
especially the Sand Hill and Seepage areas. 

Small groups of eco-tourists, the general public, school classes and other special interest 
groups, should be allowed to visit restricted areas under trained supervision. Neither specific areas 
suitable for such visits, nor their carrying capacity for visitors were determined for this study. This 
should be undertaken before conservation areas are opened to human visitors. The City should 
conduct a full scale study of the appropriate methods for providing access to restricted areas. The 
study should be structured to dove-tail with existing programs on eco-tourism, education, 
management and other relevant programs. 



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Education 

The Hogtown Creek Greenway has much to offer the educational resources of Gainesville. 
The City will greatly improve the greenway's success by incorporating educational elements into all 
aspects of design. This conclusion is based on the fact that while ecological monitoring can 
measure changes over the long term, it is generally inadequate to "protect" the greenway ecosystem 
from damage by careless users. While there seems to be a great deal of support for the greenway 
project within the community, many users will wittingly or unwittingly abuse the ecosystem 
through direct or indirect ways. The less educated the user, the more damage that user will inflict 
upon the flora and fauna of the greenway. 

A strong educational component should be a part of all design decisions. Education m the 
greenway should help people learn not only what the greenway is composed of, but also how they 
can use, and not abuse those components. The overall educational goal should be to get users 
interested enough in the greenway and its many resources that they will become advocates for and 
protectors of those resources. 

Education in the greenway should have a number of specific goals. First, educational 
elements should be kept in ecological perspective. The greenway represents an ecosystem, the 
parts of which are linked together and interdependent. Second, the greenway should be treated as a 
living laboratory'. Surrounding a creek and its associated habitats with development and providing 
access through the corndor is an experiment in balancing humanity and nature. Third, the 
greenway should have something for everyone, and it should be fun as well as interesting. While 
these latter observations may seem casual, it seems that without these elements, the greenway will 
not receive the commitment it needs. 

The following suggestions are presented under the headings mentioned above and contain 
brief descriptions of some of the educational elements that would benefit the overall ecological 
health of the greenway. Table VI (p. 53) lists some of these elements as well, and indicates 
locations where they might be applicable in the greenway. 



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Living Laboratory 

The ecological survey presented in this report provides baseline infonnation about the 
greenway, but it is by no means a complete study of the area. Together with its suggestions and 
recommendations, the report provides the foundation for further, more complete ecological work m 
the greenway. Given that ecological investigation in the greenway could go on for many years 
without a lack of suitable study questions, research should be approached in a multifaceted 
manner. Some work, such as the monitoring discussed earlier, should proceed regularly and 
continue over the long-term. Other study projects could be short-term and ask specific questions. 
Still other work should focus on the making what is known ecologically, accessible to the public. 

As in any scientific endeavor, the most important thing is to ask questions. It is then 
possible to attempt to find the specific answers to the question or hypothesis. The monitoring we 
have proposed is important. It provides basic information about the ecosystem. But it does not 
ask any specific questions. It should be an educational focus of the greenway to inspire visitors to 
ask questions about their surroundings. One of the most inspiring thmgs about nature can be the 
discovery that so little is known about it. On the other hand, many people simply want to know 
what they are looking at or walking through or smelling, and this type of information should also 
1 be provided. 



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The following are suggestions to stimulate questions and discussion on the above points: 
Community types: How they differ (Xeric Hammock vs. Floodplam Swamp), what to look for; 
what changes when you move from one to the next. 

Geology: There are significant changes in geology between the northern and southern ends of the 
greenway. Important geological features and processes include limestone, aquifers, springs and 
seepage. 



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Hydric conditions: The various vegetation forms result from hydric processes; flooding, springs, 
seepage, runoff, etc. In addition, marshlands and floodplains act as water filtration systems. 

Plants and Animals: The many plants and animals of the greenway are themselves, or can be used 
to point out unique ecological features of the area. 

Plants 

• Specific exotic species and exotics ecology: Why do they do so well in a foreign place? 

• Large or noteworthy trees: swamp bay, oaks, plane tree, magnolia and sweetgum; Why are 
these plants so big, can they get bigger? 

• Devil's walking stick: Why do some plants have spines all over them? 

• Prickly pear: Why is this called a pear? Gopher tortoises sometimes appear to have bloody 

mouths after engorging themselves on this bright pink fruit. 

• Needle palm: why do some palms have needles and others don't? 

• Jack-in-the-pulpit: is this a flower, a fiiiit, or what? 

• Aquatics: how can some plants live entirely in water and others can't? 

• Epiphytes: how do these plants live without any soil? 

Animals: 
Invertebrates: 

• Benthic creatures 

• Dragonfly ke\Tiotes 

• Sugarfoot fly 

• Bat and bird food 

• Importance of mosquitoes and other bugs 



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Reptiles and amphibians: 

Gopher tortoise habitat 

gopher tortoise comensuals (other animals that hve in the same burrows) 

Food plants 

Disease 

Dogs and other forms of disturbance to reptiles and amphibians 

Seasonality of reptiles and amphibians: sheading snakes and croaking frogs 



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Birds: 

Migrants vs. residents 

The ecology and importance of vultures 

How ospreys feed, what they depend on 

Nesting bald eagles 

Feeding ecology of water birds 

Different birds in different places: describe the respective habitats 

Mammals: 

Tracks and other signs (feces, tree scratchmgs, trails) 

Marsh mammals like the marsh rat (how it differs from Norway rats) 

Water shrew and lake edge ecology 

Bats and the importance of caves and other bat roosts 

Otters and what they might need in order to return to the area 

Cows and what they do to the habitat in which they are grazed 

Not everything has to be visible: It is often interesting to include signs indicating plant, animals 
or phenomena that might be apparent at any given time. For example, rmgrant birds, a dragonfly 
that is currently only a burrowing nymph, deer scratches on a tree, etc. 

48 



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Keynote features and signage: A keynote feature like seepage areas or the springs in the northern 
part of the greenway, or the lake in the south — could be incorporated into signs for that area to 
give it an identity with an important natural feature. For example, a greenway visitor might refer 
to their location in a section of the greenway by the presence of a lake motif in the signs, etc. 

Questions with no answers: It is sometimes better to ask a question and get a person thinking 
rather than simply provide them with an answer they will soon forget. 

Fire: Many opportunities to incorporate lessons about natural and induced (and suppressed) 
burning and the response of vegetation, animals and climate (signs could even talk about areas 
locally and around the world that are similar or dissimilar, such as tropical rain forests). 

Bicycles: Exclusion of bicycles from certain areas like the Sand Hill is for specific reasons (e.g. 
could potentially disrupt gopher tortoise habitat). Provide truthful reasons why exclusion is 
important. 

Experimental bike crossing of creek, or other experimental approach to multiuse problems: if it 
happens, promote the experimental nature of it in hopes that it will help to minimize the off-road 
use in other areas. 

Awards for original ecological study in the greenway: we recommend that the awards be offered 
at high school and university level every year or two years to students proposing to conduct an 
original ecological study project in the greenway. 

Greenways Science Project: We also recommend that a high school level competition be initiated 
between schools along the same theme as a science fair. 

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Greenways Calendar Competition: Some annual representation of the greenway, perhaps 
produced by local schools, for sale to help support research in the greenway. 



Ecosystem Linking 

Functionally, the greenway will be linking several areas of Gainesville that have been 
■| histoncally isolated. The greenway will also be linking a number of community types together 

through the thread of a trail. It will be advantageous to point out the natural links of the greenway 
as people visit along its new artificial linking device. Likewise, it will be beneficial to link all 
ecological elements in the greenway with specific education programs. 

Links through space: How the stream changes fi"om one end to the other, and how the sensitivity 
of surrounding areas changes from in a similar pattern. 

Links through time: How the geology and past and present human occupation have shaped the 
greenway; from sharks teeth to limestone faults, to springs, to dikes, dams, fire suppression and 
polluted runoff. 

Linking research studies and results to greenway visits: through display of photopoints show 
visitors changes of the same place over time. 

Linking outside biological influences to the greenway: Exotic plants and animals dominate 
several areas and are causing the demise of some species within the greenway. Tradescantia 
Jluminensis groundcover displacing native plants, domestic dogs are digging up and displacing 
gopher tortoises. 



50 



Linking human cultural sites: It is important to see what has happened over time and how the 
ecosystem has responded. 

Something for Everyone 

While it is not possible to please everyone, the more people that can appreciate the 
greenway in their own way, the more support the greenway will get from the community, and this 
will best serve the health of the ecosystem. While seeking to please the many varied interests of 
visitors, it will be wise to also provide educational materials in each of those approaches. 

Areas with no signs: perhaps some areas should simply be left with no signs at all. 

Locally produced signs: Have students from different schools research areas or subjects in or 
about the greenway and then write the signs for that area of the corridor. 

Kids loop: Could provide a loop in the greenway specifically designed for children with 
interesting signs and other media provided at children's level. 

Education tours: Tours will be popular in the greenway. And while it is assumed that some sort 
of trainmg will be provided to those who wish to lead tours, it would be beneficial to also provide 
that training to girl and boy scouts, and to offer their "conservation badge" (or the appropriate 
honor) to those who lead tours or perform other ecologically beneficial service. 

Eco-tourism: This could become an important source of foreign and out of state visitors to the 
area. An ecological basis is strongly recommended for tours. (Also see conservation section). 



51 



Toward an all Gainesville Greenway: While a recognized objective of this project is to hnk it 
with other natural areas and principal population centers in Gainesville, it would also be to the 
benefit of the greenway if more people from more areas of the City learned more about the 
corridor. Something should be done to attract people from other areas of the City, not just the 
neighborhood immediately adjacent to the greenway. Ultimately, it will be the commitments of all 
the citizens of Gainesville that defines how the greenway is used and cared for. And this will 
determine how visitors to Gainesville use the greenway and how the children of Gainesville are 
shaped by it and shape it's ftiture. 



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Site 1 : 



TABLE VI. PRELIMINARY EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES 

(Sites refer to Map I) 

Bird blind, observation deck, boardwalk 



Site 2: 



Large sabal palms and live oaks. 



Site 3: 



Aquatic vegetation; water birds; importance of lake ecology in food chain. 



Site 4: 



Eco-tourism highlighting human histon>', marsh and swamp habitat. 



Site 5: Limestone geology, fault line ecology , ecotone ecology, eco-tourism site, bald eagle nest. 
Site 6: Gopher tortoise ecology, gopher tortoise comensuals, ecotone ecology. 



Site 7: 



Impact of cattle on prairie, monitoring exclusion of cattle. 



Site 8: 



Camping and environmental education 



Site 9: 



Large Per sea borbonia trees. 



Site 10: 



Water quality monitoring; lichen lines on trees show high water levels. 



Site 11: 



Exotic plant Tradescanna fluminemis dominant as groundcover. 



Site 12: 



Rolling topography meets swamp area. 



Site 13: 



Migrant bird stopover area and nesting area. 



Site 14: 



Area of prescribed bum; study of vegetation response to fire. 



Site 15: 



Mature Swamp Forest and transition to Xeric Hammock. 



Site 16: 



Ecotone, Xenc Hammock to Floodplain Swamp; poison ivy. 



Site 18: 



Unique Sand Hill with high gopher tortoise activity and other t\pical SH features. 



Site 19: 



Survey work on migrant and resident songbirds; ecology of changing stream levels. 



Site 20: 



Wild nee; bird ecology. 



Site 21 



Erosion control; mountain bike impacts on stream ecology- 



Site 22: Sheet-flow ecology; benthos monitoring; exper. stream crossing and study of impacts. 
Site 23: Spnngs ecology, fossils demonstrating geologic histor>'. 



Site 24: 



Ring Park has many planted species not found in other areas of greenway. 



Site 25: 



Seepage ecology; erosion control; momtonng of exotics. 



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WTI plntlst 7/93 



APPENDIX 



PLANTS OF THE HOGTOWN CREEK DRAINAGE BASIN 



Scientific, common names and threatened and endangered status of plants knowTi from the 
Hogtown Creek dramage system are provided here. The hst includes 530 taxa, of which 62 are 
known only to genus. There are 30 species threatened, of special concern, uncommon or rare. 55 
species are known to be exotics, some of which are invasive. Status is explained at end of table 
and the complete list by common name is provided following status explanation. 



Scientific Name 


Common Name 


Status 


Acer saccharum ssp floridanum 


Florida Maple 




Acer negundo 


Boxelder 




Acer rubmm 


Red Maple 




Acmella sp. 






Aes cuius pavia 


Red Buckeye 




Albizia julibrissin 


Mimosa 


I,E 


Aleurites fordii 


Tung Tree 


E 


Allium conadense 


Wild Onion 




Alternanthera philoxeroides 


Alligator Weed 


I,E 


Amaranthus austral is 


Southern Water Hemp 




Amaranthus hybridus 


Common Pigweed 




Ambrosia artemesiifolia 


Common Ragweed 




Ampelopsis arborea 


Peppervine 




Amphicarpum muhlenbergianum 


Little Blue Maidencane, Goober Grass 




Andropogon brachystachyus 


Shortspike Bluestem 




Andropogon glomeratus 


Bushy Beardgrass 




Andropogon sp. 


Bluestem 




Andropogon ternarius 


Splitbeard Bluestem 




Andropogon virginicus 


Broomsedge 




Antenoron virginianum 


Jumpseed 


Uncommon 


Antigonon leptopus 


Coral Vine 


E 


Aralia spinosa 


Devil's Walking Stick 




Ardisia crenata 


Coral Ardisia 


I,E 


Arisaema dracontnim 


Green Dragon 




Arisaema triphyllum 


Jack-in-the-pulpit 




Aristida sp. 


Three-AwTi Grass 





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WTI plntlst 7/93 



Anstida s the to 


Wiregrass, Pineland 3-av\Ti 




Anindinana gigantea 


Giant Cane 




Asimma ongustifolia 


Narrowleaf Pawpaw 




Asimina incarna 


Show\' Pawpaw, Flag Pawpaw, Polecat 
Bush 




Asimma parviflora 


Pawpaw, Small-fruited Pawpaw 




Asimma sp. 


Pawpaw 




Asplenium platyneuron 


Ebony Spleenwort 


T4 


Aster dumosus 


Aster 




Aster elliottii 


Elliott's Aster 




Aster subulatus 


Aster 




Axonopus sp. 


Carpet Greass 




Azolla carolmiana 


Mosquito Fern 




Bacchans glomendiflora 


Groundsel Tree 




Baccharis halimifolia 


Saltbush 




Balduina angiistifolia 


Yellow Buttons 




Bambusa multiplex 


Hedge Bamboo 


E 


Begonia cucullata 


Wax Begonia 


I,E 


Berchemia scandens 


Rattan Vine 




Berlandiera subacaidis 


Green-Eyes 




Bidens alba 


Beggar Ticks 




B I dens bipinnata 


Beggar Ticks 




Bidens laevis 


Bur Mangold 




Bidens mitis 


Beggar Ticks 




Bignonia capreolata 


Cross Vine 




Boehmena cvlindnca 


False Nettle 




Boerhavia diffusa 


Red Spiderling, Wine-flower 




Boerhavia erecta 


Spiderling 




Brachiana ramosa 


Browntop Millet 


E 


Brasenia shreben 


Water Shields 




Bromus cf. unioloides 


Rescuegrass 




Broussonetia papyrifera 


Japanese Paper Mulberry 


E 


Buchnera flondana 


Bluehearts 




Bulbostylis sp. 


Hair Sedge 




Bulbostylus ciliotifolia 


Capillary Hair Sedge 




Bumelia anomala 






Bumelia lanuginosa 


Gum Bumelia 




Bumelia reclinata var. reclinata 


Bumelia 




Buxus sp. 


Boxwood 


E 


Cabomba carolmiana 


Fanwort 




Callicarpa americana 


Beauty Berr\ 




Calystegia sepium 






Campsis radicans 


Trumpet Vine 




Cardamine parviflora 


Cress 




Carex alata 


Sedge 




Carex amphibola 


Sedge 





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WTI plntlst 7/93 



Carex comosa 


Sedge 




Carex cnnita 


Sedge 




Carex fissa var. an s tat a 


Sedge 




Carex follicidata 


Sedge 




Carex intumescens 


Sedge 




Carex lupulina 


Sedge 




Carex sp. 


Sedge 




Carex sp. 1 


Sedge 




Carex sp. 2 


Sedge 




Carex sp. 3 


Sedge 




Carex stipata 


Sedge 




Carphephorns corymbosus 


Indian Paintbrush 




Carpimis caroliniana 


Blue Beech, Mussle Wood 




Carya aquatica 


Water Hickor>' 




Carya glabra 


Pignut Hickory 




Carya tomentosa 


Mockemut Hickory 




Chamaecrista fasciculata 


Partndge Pea 




Chamaecnsta nictjtans 


Partndge Pea, Sensitive Plant 




Castanea pumila 


Chinquapin 




Catalpa bignomoides 


Catalpa 




Celtjs laevigata 


Sugarberrv' 




Cenchnis echinatus 


Southern Sandspur 




Centella asiatica 


Coinwort 




Cephalanthiis occidentahs 


Button Bush 




Ceratophylliim demersum 


Coontail 




Cercis canadensis 


Redbud 




Chaerophyllum taintuneri 


Wild Chervil 




Chamaesyce hirta 


Hair\' Spurge 




Chamaesyce hyssopifolia 


Hyssop-Leaf Spurge, Eyebane 




Chasmanthium sessiliflonim 


Longleaf Spike-grass 




Chenopodnim ambrosioides 


Mexican Tea 




Chenopodmm giganteum 






Chionanthus virginictis 


Old-man's-Beard, Fringe Tree 




Chloris petrea 


Fingergrass 




Cicuta mexicana 


Water Hemlock 




Cwnamomum camphora 


Camphor Tree 


I,E 


Cirshim horridulum 


Thistle 




Citrus sp. 


Citrus 


E 


Cladina sp 


Deermoss (Lichen) 




Cladoma sp. 


Deermoss (Lichen) 




Claveria sp. 


Coral Fungi 




Clematis catesbyana 


Satin Curls 


Rare, 2 


Clematis crispa 


Leather Flower 




Clematis terniflora 


Virgin's Bower 


E 


Clematis virgmiana 


Virgin's Bower 




Climacium americanum 


Moss 





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WTI plntlst 7/93 



Cnidoscolus stimulosiis 


Tread Softlv 




Colocasia esculenlum 


Wild Taro 


I,E 


Commelina virginica 


Da\flo\ver 




Cormis flohda 


Flowering Dogwood 




Comiis foemina 


Stiff Dogwood 




Crataegus flava 


Summer Haw 




Crataegus marshallii 


Parsley Haw 




Crataegus sp. 


Hawthorne 




Crataegus uniflora 


One-flowered Haw 




Crotalaria lanceolata 


Rattlebox, Lance-Leaf Rattlebox 




Crotalaria pallida 


Rattlebox 




Crotalaria rotundifolia 


Rabbit-Bells 




Crotalaria sp. 


Rattlebox 




Crotalaria spectabilis 


Show>' Rattlebox 




Croton trinitatus 






Crysobalanus icaco 


Coco Plum 




Cuscuta compacta 


Dodder 




Cynanchum scoparium 


Milkweed Vine 




Cynodon dactylon 


Bermuda Grass 


I,E 


Cyperus globulosus 


Globe Sedge 




Cyperus retrosus 


Cylmdric Sedge 




Cyperus sp. 1 


Flat Sedge 




Cyperus sp. 2 


Flat Sedge 




Cyperus sp. i 


Flat Sedge 




Cyperus strigosus 


Sedge 




Cyperus tetragonus 


Sedge 




Dalea sp. 


Summer Farewell 




Decumana barbara 


Climbmg hydrangea 




Descurainia pinnata 


Tansv Mustard 




Desmodium incanum 


Sticktights 




Desmodium sp. 


Beggar's Lice 




Dichondra carolinensis 


Ponv Foot 




Digitaria sp. 


Crabgrass 




Digitaria villosa 


Shaggy Crabgrass 




Diodia teres 


Poor Joe 




Diodia virginiana 


Diodia, Buttonweed 




Dioscorea bulbifera 


Air Potato 


I,E 


Dioscorea floridana 


Wild Yam 




Dioscorea quaternata 


Wild Yam 




Diospyros virginiana 


Common Persimmon 




Dulichium arundinaceum 


Three-way Sedge 




Dumortiera sp. 


Liverwort 




Echmochloa crus-galli 


Barnyard Grass 


E 


Eichhomia crassipes 


Water Hyacinth 


I,E 


Elaeagnus canadensis 






Eleocharis sp. 


Spikerush 





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Elephantopus carolimanus 


Elephant's Foot 




Elephantopiis elatus 


Florida Elephant's Foot 




Elephantopus tomentosiis 


Elephant's Foot 




Eluesine indica 


Goosegrass 


E 


Elytraha caroliniensis 


Carolina Scaly Stem 


Uncommon 


Epidendrum conopseum 


Greenfly Orchid 


T4,T6 


Eragrostis spectabilis 


Purple Lovegrass 




Eremochloa ophiuroides 


Centipede Grass 


E 


Erianthiis gigantens 


Sugar Cane Plumegrass 




Erigeron querafolius 


Oak-Leaf Fleabane 




Ehgeron sthgosus 


Daisy Fleabane 




Ehobotrya japonica 


Loquat 


E 


Ehogonum tomentosum 


Wild Buckwheat 




Eryngium baldwinii 


Creeping Eryngo 




Etythrina herbacea 


Cherokee Bean, Coral Bean 




Euonymous amehcanus 


Hearts -a'- Bustin 




Eupatorium capillifolium 


Dog Fennel 




Eupatorium compositifolium 


Sticky Dog Fennel, Yankee Weed 




Eupatorium mohni 


Thoroughwort 




Eupatorium perfoliatum 


Boneset 




Eupatorium pilosum 


Hairy Thoroughwort 




Eupatorium serotimim 


Late Thoroughwort 




Eupatorium sp. 


Thoroughwort 




Eutodon seductnx 


Moss 




Fagus grandifolia 


Beech 


Rare in Co. 


Forestiera acuminata 


Pnvet 




Forestiera godfreyi 


Godfrey's Privet 


Rare 


Forestiera ligustrina 


Hammock Privet 




Fraxinus amencana 


White Ash 




Fraxinus caroliniana 


Water Ash 




Fraxinus pennsylvanica 


Green Ash 




Fraxinus profunda 


Pumpkin Ash 




Fraxinus sp. 


Ash 




Galactia mollis 


Milk Pea 




Galactia volubilis 


Milk Pea 




Galium aparine 


Bedstraw, Cleavers 




Galium hispidulum 


Bedstraw 




Galium pilosum 


Bedstraw 




Galium sp. 


Bedstraw 




Galium tinctonum 


Bedstraw 




Galium uniflorum 


Bedstraw 




Gaylussacia alba 






Gaylussacia nana 


Dangleberry 




Gaylussacia tomentosa 


Dangleberry 




Geastrum sp. 






Gelsemium sempervirens 


Yellow Jessamine 





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WTI plntlst 7/93 



Geranium corolinianaum 


Polecat Geranium 




Glandulona pulchella 


Verbena, Moss Verbena 


E 


Giiara angustifolia 


Southern Gaura 




Hamamelis virginiana 


Witch Hazel 


Uncommon 


Haplopappus divahcata 


Scratch Daisy 




Hedera helix 


English Iv>' 


I,E 


Hedyotis procumbem 


Innocence 




Hedyotis uniflora 


Fairy Footprints 




Helianthemiim aremcola 


Rockrose 




Helianthemum sp. 


Rockrose 




Hemerocallis arenicola 


Dav Lilly 


E 


Heterotheca subaxillans 


Camphorweed 




Hibiscus moschueteus 


Swamp Mallow 




Hieracium gronovu 


Hawk's-beard 




Hydrocotyle ranunculoides 


Pennywort 




Hydrocotyle sp. 


Pennywort 




Hydrocotyle umbellata 


Marsh Penny\vort 




Hydrocotyle verticillata 


Whorled pennv'wort 




Hymenocallis rotata 


Spider Lilly 




Hypericum hypencoides 


St Andrews Wort 




Hypericum sp. 


St. John's Wort 




Hypnum lindbergii 


Moss 




Hypoxis leptocarpa 


Clubpod Stargrass 




Hypoxis microntha 


Pmelands Yellow Stargrass 




Hypoxis rigida 


Stargrass 




Hyptis mutabilis 


Bushmint 


E 


Ilex ambigua 


Carolina Holly 


T4 


Ilex cassine 


Dahoon 




Ilex glabra 


Inkberrv, Gallberv 




Ilex opaca 


American Holly 




Ilex vomitoria 


Yaupon 




Imperata cylindnca 


Cogon Grass 




Indigofera hirsuta 


Hairy Indigo 


E 


Indigofera spicata 


Creeping Indigo 


E 


Ipomoea hederacea 


Indigo 


E 


Ipomoea pandurata 


Manroot; Wild Potato Vine 




Ipomoea sp. 


Morning Glory 




Ipomoea cordatotnloba 






Iresine diffusa 


Bloodleaf 




Ins sp. 


Flag 




Itea virginica 


Virginia-Willow 




Juncus conaceus 


Rush 




Juncus effusus 


Soft Rush 




Juncus elliottii 


Eliott's Rush 




Juncus megacephalus 


Rush 




Juncus scirpoides 


Scirpus Rush 





59 



WTI plntlst 7/93 



JunciiS sp. 


Rush 




Jumperns silicicola 


Southern Red Cedar 




Jiistwia amencana 


Water Willow 




Khgia virginica 


Dwarf Dandelion 




Lactuca jJondana 


Wood-Lettuce 




Lagerstroemio indica 


Crape Myrtle 


E 


Lantana camara 


Lantana 




Lechia sp. 


Pin weed 




Leersia hexandra 


Southern Cutgrass 




Leersia virginica 


Whitegrass 




Lemna minor 


Duckweed 




Lemna obscuro 


Duckweed 




Lemna valdiviana 


Duckweed 




Lepidium virginicum 


Pepper Grass 




Licania michaiaii 


Gopher Apple 




Li gust rum japonicum 


Japanese Privet 


I,E 


Ligustrum lucidum 


Glossy Pnvet 


I,E 


Ligustrum sinense 


Chinese Pnvet 


I,E 


Limnobnim spongia 


Frog's Bit 




Linaria canadensis 


Toadflax 




Liqiddambar styraciflua 


Sweetgum 




Lithospermum tuberosum 


Pucoon 


Uncommon 


Lobelia cardinalis 


Cardinal Flower 


T4 


Lolium perenne 


Ryegrass 




Lonicera sempervirens 


Coral Honevsuckle 




Loriope spicata 


Monke\' Grass 




Ludwigia cf. palustns 






Ludwigia decurrens 


Primrose Willow 




Ludwigia octovalvis 


Primrose Willow- 




Ludwigia peruviana 


Primrose Willow 


I 


Lygodi u m japon i cu m 


Climbing Fern 


I,E 


Lyonia ferrugmeo 


Rusty Lyonia 




Lvonia liicida 


Fetterbush 




Macfadyena ungus-cati 


Cat Claw 


E 


Magnolia grandiflora 


Bull Bay 




Magnolia virgwiana 


Sweetbav 




Melanthera nivea 






Melia azedarach 


Chinaberr> 


E 


Melothna pendula 


Wild Cucumber 




Merremia dissecta 


Cutleaf Morning Glor>' 




Mikania scandens 


Climbing Hemp weed 




Mitchella repens 


Partridge Berry 




Mnium cuspidatum 


Moss 




Modiola caroliniana 






Monarda punctata 


Horsemint 




Monotropa uni flora 


Indian Pipe 





60 



WTI plntlst 7/93 



Moms alba 


White Mulberrv 


E 


Moms rubra 


Red Mulberrv 




Myhca cenfera 


Wax M\ rtle 




Myrica heterophylla 


Northern Bavberrv 




Mynophyllum aquaticiim 


Parrot's Feather 


E 


Nasturtium cf. officinale 


Water-Cress 


E 


Neliimbo lutea 






Nuphar luteum 


Spatter-Dock 




Nyssa sylvatica 


Sour Gum, Tupelo 




Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora 


Sour Gum, Black Gum 




Oenothera biennis 


Evenmg Primrose 




Oenothera lacmiata 


Cut-Leaved Primrose 




Oplismenus setanus 


Basket Grass 


E 


Opiintia humifiisa 


PnckK' Pear 




Osmunda cmnamomea 


Cinnamon Fern 




Osmiinda regahs 


Ro\al Fern 




Ostrya virginiana 


Hophombeam, Ironwood 




Oxalis corniculata 


Lady's Sorrel 




Oxalis corymbosa 


Violet Wood Sorrel 


E 


Oxalis sp. 


Wood Sorrel 




Oxalis stricta 


Yellow Wood Sorrel 




Panicum anceps 


Hairy Panicum 




Panicum angustifolium 


Thmleaf Panicum 




Panicum commutatum 


Variable Panicum 




Panicum dichotomum 


Forked Panicum 




Panicum hemitomon 


Maidencane 




Panicum laxiflomm 


Drooping Panic Grass 




Panicum maximum 


Guinea Grass 


E 


Paniaim repens 


Torpedo Grass 


I,E 


Parietana praetermissa 


Pellitory 




Parthenocissus quinqui folia 


Virginia Creeper 




Paspalum not a turn 


Bahia Grass 


I,E 


Paspalum setaceum 


Bare-Stem Papalum 




Passifiora incarnata 


Maypop, Passion Flower 




Pas si flora lutea 


Yellow Passion Flower 




Persea borbonia 


Red Bav 




Persea palustris 


Swamp Ba\ 




Petivena alliacea 


Guinea-hen Weed 




Phaeoceros sp. 


Homwort 




Phlox dmmmondii 


Phlox 




Phoradendron serotmum 


Mistletoe 




Physalis carpenteri 


Ground Cherry 


Rare 


Phytollaca americana 


Pokeweed 




Pilea pumila 


Clearweed 




Pinus clausa 


Sand Pine 




Pinus elliotii 


Slash Pine 





61 



WTI plntlst 7/93 



Pinus glabra 


Spruce Pine 




Finns palusins 


Longleaf Pine 




Finns serolina 


Pond Pine 




Finns taeda 


Loblolly Pine 




Piptochaetmm avenaceum 


Black Needle Grass 




Pityopsis graminifolia 


Grass-Leaf Golden Aster 




Planera aquatwa 


Water Elm, Planer Tree 




Flantago lanceolata 


English Plantain, White-Man's 
Footsteps 


E 


Flantago major 


Plantain 


E 


Flantago virginica 


Southern Plantain 




Foa annua 


Annual Bluegrass 




Fodocarpus macrophylla 


Podocarpus 


E 


Foinsettia cyathophora 


Painted Leaf 




Folygonatum biflorum 


Solomon's Seal 




Folygonella gracilis 


Wireweed 




Folygonum densiflorum 






Polygonum hydropiperoides 


Smartweed, Water Pepper 




Folygonum pensylvanicum 


Knotweed 




Folygonum punctatum 


Dotted Smartweed 




Folygonum sp. 


Knotweed 




Polymnia uvedalia 


Bear's Foot 




Polypodnim polypodiodes 


Resurrection Fern 




Pontedena cordata 


Pickerelweed 




Frunus amencana 


Cherrv 




Frunus caroliniana 


Cherrv-laurel 




Fninus serotina 


Black Cherrv' 




Frunus umbellata 


Flatwood Plum 




Psoralea sp. 


Puckroot 


Rare 


Ptelia tnfoliata 


Hoptree 


Uncommon 


Fteridium aquilinum 


Bracken Fern 




Ouercus alba 


White Oak 


Uncommon 


Ouercus austnna 


Bluff Oak 




Ouercus fa lea ta 


Southern Red Oak 




Ouercus geminata 


Sand-live Oak 




Ouercus hemisphaerica 


Laurel Oak 




Ouercus incana 


Bluejack Oak 




Ouercus laevis 


Turkey Oak 




Ouercus lauri folia 


Diamond-leaf Oak, Laurel Oak 




Quercus michaiaii 


Swamp Chestnut Oak 




Ouercus nigra 


Water Oak 




Ouercus phellos 


Willow Oak 




Ouercus pumila 


Runner Oak 




Ouercus shumardii 


Shumard Oak 




Quercus stellata 


Post Oak 




Ouercus virgmiana 


Live Oak 





62 



WTI plntlst 7/93 



Rhaphidophyllum hystnx 


Needle Palm 


T3 


Rhexia manana 


Pale Meadow Beaut\ 




Rhexia sp. 


Meadow Beaut> 




Rhododendron canescens 


Wild Azalea 




Rhus copallina 


Winged Sumac 




Rhynchospora caduca 


Fallmg Beakrush 




Rhynchospora colorata 






Rhynchospora divergens 






Rhynchospora miliacea 


Millet Beakrush 




Rhyncosia sp. 






Ribes sp. 


Gooseberrv 




Richardia scabra 


Mexican Clover 




Rivina humihs 


Rouge Plant 




Rosa pahistns 


Swamp Rose 




Rubus argutiis 


Highbush Blackbern 




Rubus cimeifoliiis 


Sand Blackberr>' 




Rubus tnvialis 


Dewberry 




Ruellia carohmensis 


Wild Petunia 




Ruellia brittoniana 


Mexican Wild Petunia 


E 


Rumex crispus 


Curlv Dock 




Rumex hastatidus 






Sabal minor 


Little Blue-stem Palm 


T4 


Sabal palmetto 


Cabbage Palm 




Sacciolepis sp. 


Capscale 




Sageretia minutiflora 


Climbing Buckthorn 


Uncommon 


Sagittana la ti folia 


Common Arrowhead 




Salix carolimana 


Coastal Plain Willow 




Salvinia minima 


Water Spangles 




Sambucus canadensis 


Elderberry 




Sanicula canadensis 


Black Snakeroot 




Sapindus saponaria 


Flonda Soapberry 


Uncommon 


Sapium sebiferum 


Chinese Tallow Tree 


I,E 


Sassafras albidum 


Sassafras 




Saururus cernuus 


Lizard's Tail 




Scirpus californicus 


Bulrush 




Scirpus sp. 


Bulrush 




Scirpus sp. 2 


Bulrush 




Selena sp. 


Nut Sedge 




Selena tnglomerata 


Whip Nut Rush 




Sebastiania fruticosa 


Sebastian Bush 


Uncommon 


Selaginella apoda 


Meadow Spike Moss 


T4 


Selagmella ludoviciana 


Spike Moss 


T4 


Serenoa repens 


Saw Palmetto 




Sesbania vesicana 


Bladderpod 




Setaria geniculata 


Knotroot Foxtail 




Si da acuta 


Broom weed 





63 



I[ 



lili 



II 



WTI plntlst 7/93 



Si da CO rdi folia 




E 


Si da rhomb ifolia 


Tea Weed, Indian hemp 




Sisynnchmm atlanticum 


Blue-eved Grass 




Sisynnchiiim rosulatum 






Smilax auhculata 


Green Bnar 




Smilax bona-nox 


Green Bnar 




Smilax glauca 


Wild Sarsparilla 




Smilax laiihfolia 


Bamboo Vine 




Smilax pumila 


Sarsparilla Vine 




Smilax rotimdi folia 


Green Briar 




Smilax smallii 


Jackson Vme 


T3 


Smilax sp. 


Green Briar 




Smilax tamnoides 


Cat Bnar 




Solarium americanum 


Nightshade 




Solarium nigrescens 


Black Nightshade 




Solidago canadensis 


Goldenrod 




Solidago laevenworthii 


Goldenrod 




Sonchus asper 


Spiny-leaved Sow-Thistle 




Sonchus oleraceus 


Common Sow-Thistle 




Sorghum halapense 


Johnson Grass 


E 


Spiranthes cernua 


Ladies' Tresses 


T4 


Spirodela punctata 


Duckweed 




Sporobolis clandestinus 


Hidden Dropseed 




Stachys floridana 


Hedge Nettle, Florida Beton)' 




Stenotapharum secundatum 


St. Augustine Grass 




Symplocos tinctoria 


Sweetleaf, Horse Sugar 




Taraxacum officinale 


Common Dandelion 


E 


Taxodium distichum 


Bald C\press 




Teucrium canadense 


Wood Sage 




Thelypteris cf hispidula 


Aspidium Fern 


T4 


Thelypteris dentata 


Downv Shield Fern 


T4 


Thelypteris kunthii 


Wood Fern 


T4 


Thelypteris sp. 


Shield Fern 


T4 


Thunbergia alata 






Tilia caroliniana 


Basswood, Linden 




Tillandsia bartramii 


Wild Pme 


T4 


Tillandsia recurvata 


Ball-moss 




Tillandsia usneoides 


Spanish Moss 




Tipularia discolor 


Crane-Flv Orchid 


T4;T6 


Toxicodendron radicans 


Poison Ivy 




Toxicodendron toxicanum 


Poison Oak 




Trachelospermum jasminoides 


Confederate Jasmine 


E 


Tradescantia flummensis 


Wandering Jew 


I,E 


Tradescantia ohiensis 


Spiderwort 




Trichostema dichotomum 


Bastard Pennyroyal, Blue Curls 




Tridens flavus 


Tall Redtop 





64 



WTI plntlst 7/93 



Thfolium repens 


White Clover 




Trillium maculatum 


Wake Robbin, Toad Trillium 


Rare in 
county 


Tnplasis amencana 


Perennial Sandgrass 




Typha latifolia 


Common Cattail 




Typha sp. 


Cattail 




Ulmus alata 


Winged Elm 




Ulmus amencana 


Amencan Elm 




Urena lobata 


Caesar-Weed 


I,E 


Vaccimum arboreum 


Sparkleberr\- 




Vaccimum corymbosum 


Highbush blueberry 




Vaccimum darowii 


Darrow's Blueberry 




Valeriana scandens 


Valenan 




Verbena bonanensis 




E 


Verbena hastata 






Verbesina virginica 


Frost Weed 




Vernonia gigantea 


Iron Weed 




Vernonia sp. 


Iron Weed 




Viburnum dentatum 


Haw, Arrow Wood 




Viburnum obovatum 


Walter Haw 




Viburnum rufididum 


Rustv Blackhaw 




Viburnum dentatum var. scabrellum 






Viola esculenta 


Violet 




Viola floridana 


Flonda Violet 




Viola septemloba 


Seven-Lobed Violet 




Viola sp. 


violet 




Viola sp.y 


violet 




Viola sp.2 


violet 




Viola walteri 


Walter's Violet 




Vitis aestivalis 


Summer Grape 




Vitis rotundi folia 


Scuppemong, muscadine 




Vitis sp. 


Grape 




Vitis vidpina 


Frost Grape 




Wisteria fmtescens 


Amencan Wisteria 




Wisteria sinensis 


Chinese Wisteria 


I,E 


Wisteria sp. 


Wistena 




Wolffia Columbiana 


Water Meal 




Wolffiella gladiata 


Bog-Mat, Mud-Midget 




Woodwardia areolata 


Netted Chain Fern 


T4 


Woodwardia virgimca 


Virginia Chain Fern 




Xanthosoma sagittifolium 


Elephant Ear 


E 


Xyns sp. 


Yellow-Eyed Grass 




Youngia japonica 




E 


Yucca filamentosa 


Adam's Needle, Bear Grass 




Zanthoxylum clava-heradis 


Hercules Club 




Zizaniopsis miliacea 


Southern Wild Rice 





65 



L 

r 



WTI plntlst 7/93 

1 

II STATUS: 

T - Plant considered Threatened by the source indicated by number 

1) SC = Plant considered to be of Special Concern by the source indicated by number 

I R = Rare either locally or regionally 

U ~ Uncommon either locally or regionally 
I = Plant is Invasive 
E = Plant is an Exotic 

Sources consulted for status: 

1=FGFWFC 2 = FNAI 3 = DW 4 = FDA 5 - USFWS 6 = CITES 

CITES = Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. 
DW = Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida; Volume 5, Plants, Edited by Daniel B. 

Ward, 1976, University of Florida Press. 
FDA = Florida Department of Agriculture (List published in Preservtion of Native Flora of 

Flonda Act, Section 581.185-187, Florda Statutes), 1990. 
FGFWFC = Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission; Official Lists of Endangered and 

Potentially Endangered Fauna and Flora in Flonda, 1990. 
FNAI = Flonda Natural Areas Inventory', Special Plant and Lichen List, 1990. 

USFWS = United States Fish and Wildlif Service (List published in List of Endangered and 

Treatened Wildlife and Plants, 50 CFR 17.11-12) 



66 



WTI plntlst 7/93 



PLANTS OF THE HOGTOWN CREEK DRAINAGE BASIN 
LISTED BY COMMON NAME 



Common Name 


Scientific Name 


Status 


Adam's Needle, Bear Grass 


Yucca filamentosa 




Air Potato 


Dioscorea bulbifera 


I,E 


Alligator Weed 


Alternanthera philoxeroides 


I,E 


American Elm 


Ulmus amehcana 




American HoUv 


Ilex opaca 




American Wistena 


Wisteria fni tescens 




Annual Bluegrass 


Poa annua 




Ash 


Fraxinus sp. 




Aspidium Fern 


Thelypteris cf. hispidula 


T4 


Aster 


Aster dumosus 




Aster 


Aster subulatus 




Bahia Grass 


Paspalum notatum 


I,E 


Bald Cypress 


Taxodnim distichum 




Ball-moss 


Tillandsia recurvata 




Bamboo Vine 


Smilax launfolia 




Bare-Stem Papalum 


Paspalum setaceum 




Bamvard Grass 


Echinochloa crus-galli 


E 


Basket Grass 


Oplismenus setarius 




Basswood, Linden 


Tilia caroliniana 




Bastard Pennyroyal, Blue Curls 


Tnchostema dichotomum 




Bear's Foot 


Polvmnia uvedalia 




Beauty Berr>' 


Callicarpa amehcana 




Bedstravv, Cleavers 


Galium apart ne 




Bedstraw 


Galnim hispidulum 




Bedstraw 


Galium pilosum 




Bedstraw 


Galium sp. 




Bedstraw 


Galium tinctorium 




Bedstraw 


Galium uniflonim 




Beech 


Fagus grandifolia 


Rare in Co 


Beggar Ticks 


Bidens alba 




Beggar Ticks 


Bidens bipinnata 




Beggar Ticks 


Bidens mitis 




Beggar's Lice 


Desmodium sp. 




Bermuda Grass 


Cynodon dactylon 


I,E 


Black Cherr\ 


Prunus serotina 




Black Needle Grass 


Piptochaetium avenaceum 




Black Nightshade 


Solanum nigrescens 




Black Snakeroot 


Sanicula canadensis 




Bladderpod 


Sesbania vesicaria 





67 



ri' 



fTT 



y 
n 
(I 
n 
u 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 



WTI plntlst 7/93 



Bloodleaf 


Iresme diffusa 




Blue Beech, Mussle Wood 


Carpimis caroliniana 




Blue-eyed Grass 


Sisynnchnim atlanticum 




Bluehearts 


Biichnera amencana 




Bluejack Oak 


Qiierciis incana 




Bluestem 


Andropogon sp. 




Bluff Oak 


Ouercus aiistnna 




Bog-Mat, Mud-Midget 


Wolffiella glodiata 




Boneset 


Eiipatoriiim perfoliatiim 




Boxelder 


Acer negundo 




Boxwood 


Biixiis sp. 


E 


Bracken Fern 


Ptendium aquilimim 




Broomsedge 


Andropogon virginiciis 




Broom weed 


Si da acuta 




Browntop Millet 


Brachiaria ramosa 


E 


Bull Bay 


Magnolia grandiflora 




Bulrush 


Scirpus californicus 




Bulrush 


Scirpus sp. 




Bulrush 


Scirpus sp. 2 




Bumelia 


Bumelia reclinata var. reclinata 




Bur Marigold 


Bidens laevis 




Bushmint 


Hyptis mu tab ills 


E 


Bushy Beardgrass 


Andropogon glome rat us 




Button Bush 


Cephalanthus occidentalis 




Cabbage Pahn 


Sabal palmetto 




Caesar-Weed 


Urena lobata 


I,E 


Camphor Tree 


Cmnamomum camphora 


I,E 


Camphorweed 


Heterotheca subaxillaris 




Capillar)' Hair Sedge 


Bulbostylus ciliatifolia 




Capscale 


Sacciolepis sp. 




Cardmal Flower 


Lobelia cardinalis 


T4 


Carolma Holl> 


Ilex ambigua 


T4 


Carolma Scaly Stem 


Elvtraha caroliniensis 


Uncommon 


Carpet Greass 


Axonopus sp. 




Cat Bnar 


Smilax tamnoides 




Cat Claw 


Macfadyena ungus-cati 


E 


Catalpa 


Catalpa hignonioides 




Cattail 


Typha sp. 




Centipede Grass 


Eremochloa ophiuroides 


E 


Cherokee Bean, Coral Bean 


Ervthrina herbacea 




Cherr>' 


Pninus americana 




Cherr>'-laurel 


Prunus caroliniana 




Chinaberry 


Melia azedarach 


E 


Chinese Pnvet 


Ligustrum sinense 


I,E 


Chmese Tallow Tree 


Sapium sebiferum 


I,E 


Chinese Wisteria 


Wisteria sinensis 


I,E 



68 



WTI pintlst 7/93 



Chinquapin 


Castanea piimila 




Cinnamon Fern 


Osmimda cinnamomea 




Citrus 


Citrus sp. 


E 


Clearweed 


Filea piimila 




Climbing Buckthorn 


Sageretia mimitiflora 


Uncommon 


Chmbing Fern 


Lygodium japonicum 


I,E 


Chmbing Hempweed 


Mikania scandens 




Chmbing hydrangea 


Decumaha barbara 




Clubpod Stargrass 


Hypoxis leptocarpo 




Coastal Plam Willow 


Salix carolimana 




Coco Plum 


Crysobalanus icaco 




Cogon Grass 


Imperata cylindhca 




Coinvvort 


Centella asiatica 




Common Arrowhead 


Sagittaha latifolia 




Common Cattail 


Typha latifolia 




Common Dandelion 


Taraxacum officinale 


E 


Common Persimmon 


Diospyros virginiana 




Common Pigweed 


Amaranthus hybridus 




Common Ragweed 


Ambrosia artemesiifolia 




Common Sow-Thistle 


Sonchus oleraceus 




Confederate Jasmine 


Trachelospermum jasminoides 


E 


Coontail 


Ceratophyllum demersum 




Coral Ardisia 


Ardisia crenata 


I,E 


Coral Fungi 


Claveria sp. 




Coral Honeysuckle 


Lonicera sempervirens 




Coral Vine 


Antigonon leptopus 


E 


Crabgrass 


DigUaria sp. 




Crane-Fly Orchid 


Tipularia discolor 


T4,T6 


Crape M>Ttle 


Lagerstroemia indica 


E 


Creeping Er\Tigo 


Eryngium baldwimi 




Creeping Indigo 


Indigofera spicata 


E 


Cress 


Cardamine parviflora 




Cross Vine 


Bignonia capreolata 




Curlv Dock 


Rumex crispus 




Cut-Leaved Primrose 


Oenothera laciniata 




Cutleaf Morning Glon, 


Merremia dissecta 




Cylindric Sedge 


Cyperus retrosus 




Dahoon 


Ilex cassine 




Daisy Fleabane 


Erigeron strigosus 




Dangleberpy' 


Gaylussacia nana 




Dangleberr)' 


Gaylussacia tomentosa 




Darrow's Blueberrv 


Vaccinium darowii 




Day Lillv 


Hemerocallis arenicola 


E 


Dayflower 


Commelina virginica 




Deermoss (Lichen) 


Cladina sp 




Deermoss (Lichen) 


Cladonia sp. 





69 



WTI plntlst 7/93 



Devil's Walking Stick 


Araha spmosa 




Dewberr> 


Rubiis tnvialis 




Diamond-leaf Oak, Laurel Oak 


Quercus launfolia 




Diodia, Buttonweed 


Diodia virginiana 




Dodder 


Ciiscuta compacta 




Dog Fennel 


Enpatohum capillifolium 




Dotted Smartweed 


Polygonum pimctatum 




Downy Shield Fern 


Thelyptehs dentata 


T4 


Duckweed 


Lemna minor 




Duckweed 


Lemna obscura 




Duckweed 


Lemna valdiviana 




Duckweed 


Spirodela punctata 




Dwarf Dandelion 


Kngia virginica 




Ebony Spleenwort 


Asplenium platyneuron 


T4 


Elderberry 


Sambucus canadensis 




Elephant Ear 


Xanthosoma sagittifolium 


E 


Elephant's Foot 


Elephantopus carolinianus 




Elephant's Foot 


Elephantopus tomentosus 




Eliott's Rush 


Juncus elliottii 




Elliott's Aster 


Aster elliottii 




English Ivy 


Hedera helix 


I,E 


English Plantain, White-Man's 
Footsteps 


Plantago lanceolata 


E 


Evening Pnmrose 


Oenothera biennis 




Fairy Footprints 


Hedyotis uniflora 




Falling Beakrush 


Rhynchospora caduca 




False Nettle 


Boehmeria cylindhca 




Fanwort 


Cabomba caroliniana 




Fetterbush 


Lyonia lucida 




Fingergrass 


Eustachys petrea 




Flag 


Iris sp. 




Flat Sedge 


Cyperus sp. I 




Flat Sedge 


Cyperus sp. 2 




Flat Sedge 


Cyperus sp. 3 




Flatwood Plum 


Prunus umbellata 




Florida Elephant's Foot 


Elephantopus elatus 




Florida Maple 


Acer saccharum ssp. Jloridanum 




Florida Soapberr\' 


Sapindus saponaria 


Uncommon 


Flonda Violet 


Viola floridana 




Flowermg Dogwood 


Cornus florida 




Forked Panicum 


Panicum dichotomum 




Frog's Bit 


Umnobium spongia 




Frost Grape 


Vitis vulpina 




Frost Weed 


Verbesina virginica 




Giant Cane 


Anmdinaria gigantea 




Globe Sedge 


Cyperus globulosus 





70 



WTI plntlst 7/93 



Glossy Pnvet 


Ligustnim lucidiim 


I,E 


Godfre>'s Privet 


Forestiera godfreyi 


Rare 


Goldenrod 


Solidago canadensis 




Goldenrod 


Solidago laevenworthii 




Gooseberry' 


Ribes sp. 




Goosegrass 


Eluesine mdica 


E 


Gopher Apple 


Licania michauxii 




Grape 


Vitis sp. 




Grass-Leaf Golden Aster 


Pityopsis graminifolia 




Green Ash 


Fraxinus pennsyhanica 




Green Bnar 


Smilax auriculata 




Green Briar 


Smilax bona-nox 




Green Briar 


Smilax rotundifolia 




Green Briar 


Smilax sp. 




Green Dragon 


Arisaema draconhum 




Green-Eves 


Berlandiera subacaulis 




Greenfly Orchid 


Epidendrum conopseum 


T4,T6 


Ground Cherr>' 


Physalis carpenteri 


Rare 


Groundsel Tree 


Bacchans glomerulijlora 




Guinea Grass 


Panicum maximum 


E 


Guinea -hen Weed 


Petiveria alliacea 




Gum Bumelia 


Bumelia lanuginosa 




Hair Sedge 


Bulbostylis sp. 




Hairy Indigo 


Indigofera hirsuta 


E 


Hair>' Panicum 


Panicum anceps 




Hair>' Spurge 


Chamaesyce hirta 




Hairy Thoroughwort 


Eiipatonum pilosum 




Hammock Pnvet 


Forestiera ligustrina 




Haw, Arrow Wood 


Viburnum dentatum 




Hawk's-beard 


Hieracium gronovii 




Hawthorne 


Crataegus sp. 




Hearts -a'- Bustin 


Euonymous americanus 




Hedge Bamboo 


Bambusa multiplex 


E 


Hedge Nettle, Florida Betony 


Stachys floridana 




Hercules Club 


Zanthoxylum clava-herculis 




Hidden Dropseed 


Sporobolis clandestinus 




Highbush Blackberr}' 


Rubus argutus 




Highbush blueberry' 


Vaccinium corymbosum 




Hophombeam: Ironwood 


Ostrya virginiana 




Hoptree, 


Ptelia trifoliata 




Homw'ort 


Phaeoceros sp. 




Horsemint 


Monarda punctata 




Hyssop-Leaf Spurge, Eyebane 


Chamaesyce hyssopifolia 




Indian Pamtbrush 


Carphephorus corymbosus 




Indian Pipe 


Monotropa uniflora 




Indigo 


Ipomoea hederacea 


E 



71 



WTI plntlst 7/93 



Inkberr) , Gallbcrv 


Ilex glabra 




Innocence 


Hedyotis procumbens 




Iron Weed 


Vernonia gigantea 




Iron Weed 


Vernonia sp. 




Jack-in-the-pulpit 


Ansae ma thphyllum 




Jackson Vine 


Smilax smallii 


T3 


Japanese Paper Mulberr\- 


Broussonetia papyhfera 




Japanese Privet 


Ligustnim japonicum 


I,E 


Johnson Grass 


Sorghum halapense 


E 


Jumpseed 


Polygonum virginianum 


Uncommon 


Knotroot Foxtail 


Setaria geniculata 




Knotweed 


Polygonum pensylvanicum 




Knotweed 


Polygonum sp. 




Ladies' Tresses 


Spiranthes cernua 


T4 


Lady's Sorrel 


Oxalis corniculata 




Lantana 


Lantana camara 




Late Thoroughwort 


Eupatohum serotinum 




Laurel Oak 


Quercus hemisphaerica 




Leather Flower 


Clematis cnspa 




Little Blue Maidencane, Goober Grass 


Amphicarpum muhlenbergianum 




Little Blue-stem Palm 


Sabal minor 


T4 


Live Oak 


Quercus virginiana 




Liverwort 


Dumortiera sp. 




Lizard's Tail 


Saururus cernuus 




Loblolly Pine 


Pinus taeda 




Longleaf Pine 


Pinus palustris 




Longleaf Spike-grass 


Chasmanthium sessiliflonim 




Loquat 


Eriobotrya japonica 


E 


Maidencane 


Panicum hemitomon 




Manroot. Wild Potato Vine 


Ipomoea pandurata 




Marsh PennN-wort 


Hydrocotyle umbellata 




Ma>'pop. Passion Flower 


Passiflora incarnata 




Meadow Beauty 


Rhexia sp. 




Meadow Spike Moss 


Selaginella apoda 


T4 


Mexican Clover 


Richardia scabra 




Mexican Tea 


Chenopodium ambrosioides 




Mexican Wild Petunia 


Ruellia brittoniana 


E 


Milk Pea 


Galactia mollis 




Milk Pea 


Galactia volubilis 




Milkweed Vine 


Cynanchum scoparium 




Millet Beakrush 


Rhynchospora miliacea 




Mimosa 


A Ibizia julibrissin 


I,E 


Mistletoe 


Phoradendron serotinum 




Mockemut Hickors^ 


Carya tomentosa 




Monkev Grass 


Lonope spicata 




Morning Glon. 


Ipomoea sp. 





72 



WTI plntlst 7/93 



Mosquito Fern 


Azolla carolmiana 




Moss 


Climacium amencanum 




Moss 


Eutodon sediicthx 




Moss 


Hypnum Imdbergii 




Moss 


Mnium cuspidatum 




Narrowleaf Pawpavs' 


Asimma ongusti folia 




Needle Palm 


Rhaphidophyllum hysthx 


T3 


Netted Chain Fern 


Woodwardio areolata 


T4 


Nightshade 


Solamim amencanum 




Northern Bayberry 


Myrica heterophylla 




Nut Sedge 


Selena sp. 




Oak-Leaf Fleabane 


Erigeron querafolius 




Old-man's-Beard, Fringe Tree 


Chionanthus virginicus 




One-flowered Haw 


Crataegus uniflora 




Painted Leaf 


Poinsettia cyathophora 




Pale Meadow Beauty 


Rhexia mahana 




Parrot's Feather 


Myhophyllum aquaticum 


E 


Parsley Haw 


Crataegus marshallii 




Partridge Berrv 


Mitchella repens 




Partridge Pea 


Chamaecrista fasciculata 




Partridge Pea, Sensitive Plant 


Chamaecnsta nictitans 




Pawpaw, Small -fruited Pawpaw 


Asimina parvi flora 




Pawpaw 


Asimina sp. 




Pellitor^• 


Panetana praetermissa 




Penn\'wort 


Hydrocotyle ranunculoides 




PeruiN-wort 


Hydrocotyle sp. 




Pepper Grass 


Lepidium virgmiciim 




Peppervine 


Ampelopsis arborea 




Perennial Sandgrass 


Tnplasis amehcana 




Phlox 


Phlox drummondii 




Pickerelweed 


Pontedeha cordata 




Pignut Hickor>' 


Carya glabra 




Pinelands Yellow Stargrass 


Hypoxis micrantha 




Pin weed 


Lechia sp. 




Plantain 


Plantago major 


E 


Podocarpus 


Podocarpus macrophylla 


E 


Poison Iw 


Toxicodendron radicans 




Poison Oak 


Toxicodendron toxicarmm 




Pokeweed 


Phytollaca amehcana 




Polecat Geranium 


Geranium carolinianaum 




Pond Pme 


Pinus serotina 




Pony Foot 


Dichondra carolinensis 




Poor Joe 


Diodia teres 




Post Oak 


Ouercus stellata 




PnckK Pear 


Opuntia humifusa 




Prunrose Willow 


Ludwigia deciirrens 





73 



WTI plntlst 7/93 



Primrose Willow 


Ludwigia octovalvis 




Primrose Willow 


Ludwigia peruviana 


I 


Pnvet 


Forestiera acuminata 




Puckroot 


Psoralea sp. 


Rare 


Pumpkin Ash 


Fraxinus profunda 




Purple Lovegrass 


Eragrostis spectabilis 




Rabbit-Bells 


Crotalana rotundifolia 




Rattan Vine 


Berchemia scandens 




Rattlebox, Lance-Leaf Rattlebox 


Crotalaria lanceolata 




Rattlebox 


Crotalana pallida 




Rattlebox 


Crotalana sp. 




Red Bay 


Persea horboma 




Red Buckeye 


Aes cuius pavia 




Red Maple 


Acer rubrum 




Red Mulberry' 


Moms rubra 




Red Spiderling, Wine-flower 


Boerhavia diffusa 




Redbud 


Cercis canadensis 




Rescuegrass 


Bromus cf unioloides 




Resurrection Fern 


Polypodium polypodiodes 




Rockrose 


Helianthemum arenicola 




Rockrose 


Helianthemum sp. 




Rouge Plant 


Rivina humilis 




Royal Fern 


Osmunda regalis 




Runner Oak 


Quercus pumila 




Rush 


Juncus conaceus 




Rush 


./uncus megacephalus 




Rush 


Juncus sp. 




Rust\' Blackhaw 


Viburnum rufididum 




Rustv Lyonia 


Lyonia ferruginea 




Ryegrass 


Lolium perenne 




Saltbush 


Baccharis halimifolia 




Sand Blackberry 


Rubus cuneifolius 




Sand Pine 


Pinus clausa 




Sand-live Oak 


Quercus geminata 




Sarspanlla Vine 


Smilax pumila 




Sassafras 


Sassafras albidum 




Satin Curls 


Clematis catesbyana 


Rare, 2 


Saw Palmetto 


Serenoa re pens 




Scirpus Rush 


Juncus scirpoides 




Scratch Daisy 


Haplopappus divaricata 




Scuppemong, muscadine 


Vitis rotundifolia 




Sebastian Bush 


Sebastiania fruticosa 


Uncommon 


Sedge 


Carex alata 




Sedge 


Carex amphibola 




Sedge 


Carex comosa 




Sedge 


Carex crinita 





74 



WTI plntlst 7/93 



Sedge 


Carex fissa var. anstata 




Sedge 


Carex folliciilata 




Sedge 


Carex intiimescens 




Sedge 


Carex lupidina 




Sedge 


Carex sp. 




Sedge 


Carex sp. 1 




Sedge 


Carex sp. 2 




Sedge 


Carex sp. 3 




Sedge 


Carex stipata 




Sedge 


Cyperus strigosiis 




Sedge 


Cypenis tetragomis 




Seven-Lobed Violet 


Viola septemloba 




Shaggy Crabgrass 


Digitana villosa 




Shield Fem 


Thelypteris sp. 


T4 


Shortspike Bluestem 


Andropogon brachystachyus 




Showy Pawpaw, Flag Pawpaw, Polecat 
Bush 


Asimina incarna 




Show\' Rattlebox 


Crotalaria spectabilis 




Shumard Oak 


Quercus shiimardii 




Slash Pine 


Pinus elliotii 




Smartweed, Water Pepper 


Polygonum hydropiperoides 




Soft Rush 


Juncus effiisus 




Solomon's Seal 


Polygonatitm bi/lorum 




Sour Gum, Tupelo 


Nyssa sylvatica 




Sour Gum, Black Gum 


Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora 




Southern Cutgrass 


Leersia hexandra 




Southern Gaura 


Guara angustifolia 




Southern Plantam 


Plantago virginica 




Southern Red Cedar 


Juniperus silicicola 




Southern Red Oak 


Quercus falcata 




Southern Sandspur 


Cenchrus echinatus 




Southern Water Hemp 


Amaranthus australis 




Southern Wild Rice 


Zizaniopsis miliacea 




Spanish Moss 


Tillandsia usneoides 




Sparklebern,' 


Vaccinium arboreum 




Spatter-Dock 


Nuphar luteum 




Spider Lilly 


Hvmenocallis rotata 




Spiderling 


Boerhavia erecta 




Spiderwort 


Tradescantia ohiensis 




Spike Moss 


Selagtnella ludoviciana 


T4 


Spikerush 


Eleocharis sp. 




Spiny-leaved Sow-Thistle 


Sonchus asper 




Splitbeard Bluestem 


Andropogon ternanus 




Spruce Pine 


Pinus glabra 




St. Andrews Wort 


Hypericum hypericoides 




St. Augustine Grass 


Stenotapharum secimdatum 





75 



WTI plntlst 7/93 



St. John's Wort 


Hypericum sp. 




Stargrass 


Hypoxis ngida 




Sticktights 


Desmodmm incamim 




Sticky Dog Fennel, Yankee Weed 


Enpatonum composiUfolium 




Stiff Dogwood 


Cornus foemma 




Sugar Cane Plumegrass 


Ehanthus giganteus 




Sugarberry 


Celtis laevigata 




Summer Farewell 


Dalea sp. 




Summer Grape 


ViUs aestivalis 




Summer Haw 


Crataegus flava 




Swamp Bay 


Persea paliistris 




Swamp Chestnut Oak 


Quercus michauxii 




Swamp Mallow 


Hibiscus moschueteus 




Swamp Rose 


Rosa palustns 




Sweetbay 


Magnolia virginiana 




Sweetgum 


Liquidambar styraciflua 




Sweetleaf, Horse Sugar 


Symplocos tinctoria 




Tall Redtop 


Tridens flavus 




Tansy Mustard 


Descurainia pinnata 




Tea Weed, Indian hemp 


Sida rhombifolia 




Thistle 


Cirsium horridulum 




Thoroughwort 


Eupatorium mohrii 




Thoroughwort 


Eupatorium sp. 




Three-Awn Grass 


Aristida sp. 




Three-way Sedge 


Dulichium arundinaceum 




Toadflax 


Lmana canadensis 




Torpedo Grass 


Panicum repens 


I,E 


Tread Softly 


Cnidoscolus stimulosus 




Trumpet Vine 


Campsis radicans 




Tung Tree 


Aleurites fordii 


E 


Turkey Oak 


Ouercus laevis 




Valenan 


Valeriana scandens 




Variable Panicum 


Panicum commutatum 




Verbena, Moss Verbena 


Glandularia pulchella 


E 


Violet 


Viola esculenta 




Violet 


Viola sp. 




Violet 


Viola sp. J 




Violet 


Viola sp.2 




Violet Wood Sorrel 


Oxalis corymbosa 




Virgin's Bower 


Clematis terniflora 


E 


Virgin's Bower 


Clematis virginiana 




Virginia Chain Fern 


Woodwardia virginica 




Virginia Creeper 


Parthenocissus quinquifolia 




Virginia-Willow 


Itea virginica 




Wake Robbin. Toad Tnllium 


Trillium maculatum 


Rare in Co. 


Walter Haw 


Viburnum obovatum 





76 



r 
I 
I 
1 



WTI plntlst 7/93 



] 
1 
1 



Walter's Violet 


Viola walteri 




Wandering Jew 


Tradescontia fhiminensis 


I,E 


Water Ash 


Fraxmus caroliniana 




Water Elm, Planer Tree 


Planera aquatica 




Water Hemlock 


Ciciita mexicana 




Water Hickory 


Carya aquatica 




Water Hyacinth 


Eichhornia crassipes 


I,E 


Water Meal 


Wolffia Columbiana 




Water Oak 


Quercus nigra 




Water Shields 


Brasenia shreberi 




Water Spangles 


Sahinia minima 




Water Willow 


Justicia amehcana 




Water-Cress 


Nasturtium cf. officinale 


E 


Wax Begonia 


Begonia cucullata 


I,E 


Wax Myrtle 


Myrica cerifera 




Whip Nut Rush 


Selena triglomerata 




White Ash 


Fraxinus americana 




White Clover 


Tnfolium repens 




White Mulberry 


Morus alba 


E 


White Oak 


Quercus alba 


Uncommon 


Whitegrass 


Leersia virginica 




Whorled penn>^vort 


Hydrocotyle verticillata 




Wild Azalea 


Rhododendron canescens 




Wild Buckwheat 


Eriogonum tomentosum 




Wild Chervil 


Chaerophyllum tainturieri 




Wild Cucumber 


Melothria pendula 




Wild Onion 


Allium canadense 




Wild Petuma 


Ruellia caroliniensis 




Wild Pme 


Tillandsia bartramii 


T4 


Wild Sarspanlla 


Smilax glauca 




Wild Taro 


Colocasia escidentum 


I,E 


Wild Yam 


Dioscorea floridana 




Wild Yam 


Dioscorea quaternata 




Willow Oak 


Quercus phellos 




Winged Ebn 


Ulmus alata 




Winged Sumac 


Rhus copallina 




Wiregrass, Pineland 3 -awn 


Aristida striata 




Wire weed 


Polygonella gracilis 




Wistena 


Wisteria sp. 




Witch Hazel 


Hamamelis virginiana 


Uncommon 


Wood Fern 


Thelypteris kunthii 


T4 


Wood Sage 


Teucrium canadense 




Wood Sorrel 


Oxalis sp. 




Wood-Lettuce 


Lactuca floridana 




Yaupon 


Ilex vomitoria 




Yellow Bunons 


Balduina angusti folia 





77 



\ 



WTI plntlst 7/93 



Yellow Jessamine 


Gelsemiiim sempervirens 




Yellow Passion Flower 


Passiflora lutea 




Yellow Wood Sorrel 


Oxolis stricta 




Yellow-Eved Grass 


Xyns sp. 




Common names not known: 


Acmella sp. 






Biimelia anomala 






Calystegia sepium 






Chenopodium giganteum 






Croton trinUatus 






Elaeagmis canadensis 






Gaylussacia alba 






G east mm sp. 






Ipomoea cordatothloba 






Ludwigia cf. palustris 






Melanthera nivea 






Modiola caroliniana 






Osmunda intermedia 






Panicum angustifolium 






Panicum laxiflorum 






Polygonum densiflorum 






Rhynchospora colorata 






Rhynchospora divergens 






lihyncosia sp. 






Riimex hastatulus 






Sida cordifolia 


E 




Sisyhnchium rosidatum 






Thiinbergia alata 






Verbena bonanensis 


E 




Verbena hastata 






Viburnum dentatum var. 
scab re Hum 






Youngia japonica 


E 



I 

J 



78 



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I 

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\ 



J 
1 



APPENDIX II 



MAMMALS OF THE 
HOGTOWN CREEK DRAINAGE BASIN 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 


COMMON NAME 


LOCATION 


STATUS 


SOURCE 


Blahna brevicauda 


short-tailed shrew 




C 


WTI 


Cry'ptotis parva 


least shrew 






FLMNH 


Dasypus novemcinctus 


armadillo 


DF,PR 


C 


WTI 


Didelphis marsupialis 


opossum 


DF,SF,U 


C 


WTI 


Glaucomys volans 


southern flving squirrel 


DF,SF 


C 


WTI 


Geomys pinetis 


pocket gopher 


SH 




WTI 


Lasiurus borealis 


red bat 


DF, U, P 




WTI 


iMsiunis intermedius 


eastern vellow bat 


DF, P, caves 




FLMNH 


Lasiurus seminolus 


Seminole bat 


DF, P, caves 




FLMNH 


Microtis pinetorum 


pme vole 


PL 




WTI 


Lutra canadensis 


nver otter 


P,R 


R, SC 


FLMNH 


Mephihs mephitis 


striped skunk 


PR,DF 




WTI 


Mustela frenata 


long-tailed weasel 


DF.PR 




FLMNH 


Myotis austrohpahiis 


mississippi myotis 






FLMNH 


Neo fiber alleni 


florida water rat 


SF, P, R 


SC 


FLMNH 


Neo to ma flo ridana 


eastern woodrat 


DF,SF,PR 




WTI 


Oryzomys palustns 


rice rat 


General, PR 




FLMNH 


Peromyscus flondanus 


florida mouse 


General, PR 


T 


FLMNH 


Peromyscus gossypinus 


cotton mouse 


General, PR 




FMNH 


Peromyscus polionotus 


old field mouse 


General, PR 




FMNH 


Ochrotomvs nuttalli 


golden mouse 


General, PR 


E 


FLMNH 


Procvon lotor 


raccoon 


DF,SF,R,U 


C 


WTI 


Reithrodontomvs humulis 


eastern harvest mouse 


General, PR 




FLMNH 


Scalopus nquaticus 


eastern mole 


General, PR 


C 


FMNH 


Sciunis carolinensis 


grey squirrel 


DF,U 


C 


WTI 


Sigmodon hispidus 


hispid cotton rat 


SF 




FLMNH 


Silvilagus flondanus 


eastern cottontail 


DF,PR,P 


C 


WTI 


Silvilagus palustns 


marsh rabbit 


SF,PR 


C 


WTI 


Spilogale putonus 


spotted skunk 


DF, SF, R 




WTI 


Sus scrofa 


feral pig 


DF,SF 


R 


WTI 


Tadarida brasiliensis 


mexican free-tailed bat 


DF, U, P 


C 


WTI 


Urocyon cmereoargenteus 


gray fox 


DF, SF 




FMNH 


Vulpes vulpes 


red fox 


DF, U, PR 




WTI 


Ondaria zibethicus 


muskrat 


Possible 




WTI 


Odocoileus virginianus 


white-tailed deer 


Possible 




WTI 



79 



Key to Abbreviations 
Location 

DF Dry Forest: includes mesic hammock, but no standing water 

SF Swamp Forest; includes hardwood hammocks and scrub with swamp 

U Urban areas 

PR Prairie, with occasional ponding 

P pond or standing pool 

R flowing river or stream 

PL Pineland 

SH Sand Hill 

Status 

C common m this area 

T threatened species (listed in Florida) 

R rare or occasional in this area 

E endangered species (listed in Florida) 

SC species of special concern 

B breeding 

M migratorv': in this area less than 6 months/year 

Source 

WTI: Wild Things, Inc., through field work and personal communications. 

FLMNH: Florida Museum Natural Histor\'; info, from Mammal Range Collection, 

Dr. Steve Humphrey, or Dr. John F. Eisenberg. 

Prepared for Wild Things, Inc. by Thia Hunter, Dept. of Zoology, 223 Bartram Hall, UF 



80 



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APPENDIX in 



PRELIMINARY LIST OF BIRDS OF THE 
HOGTOWN CREEK DRAINAGE BASIN 



COMMON NAME 


SCIENTIFIC NAME 


STATUS 


acadian flycatcher 


Empidonax virescens 


B 


amencan bittern 


Botaurus lentiginosus 




american coot 


Fiilica amehcana 




american crow 


Connts brachyrhynchos 


C 


amencan goldfinch 


Carduelis thstiis 




amencan kestrel 


Falco sparvehns 




american pipit 


Anthus spinoletta 




american redstart 


Setophaga ruticilla 




american robm 


Turdus migratonus 


C 


american wigeon 


Anas amehcana 




american woodcock 


Scolopax minor 




anhmga 


Anhinga anhinga 




bald eagle 


Haliaeetiis leucocephalus 


E 


barred owl 


Strix vaha 


CBN 


belted kingfisher 


Ceryle alcyon 




black & white warbler 


Mniotilta vaha 


M 


black vulture 


Coragyps atratus 




black-throated blue warbler 


Dendroica caerulescens 


M 


blue jay 


Cvanocitta chstata 


CB 


blue-grey gnatcatcher 


Polioptila caenilea 




blue-wmged teal 


Anas discors 




boat-tailed grackle 


Quiscalus major 




bonaparte's gull 


Larus Philadelphia 




brewer's blackbird 


Euphagus cyanocephalus 




broad- winged hawk 


Buteo platypterits 




brown creeper 


Certhia amehcana 


M 


brown thrasher 


Toxo stoma rufiim 




Carolina chicadee 


Parus carolinensis 


C 


Carolina wren 


Thryothorus ludovicianus 


BN 


cattle egret 


Bubulcus ibis 


CB 


cedar waxwmg 


Bombvcilla cedrorum 




common grackle 


Quiscalus quiscula 


C 


common moorhen 


Gallinula chloropus 




common nighthawk 


Chordeiles minor 


B 


common snipe 


Gallinago gallinago 




common \ellowthroat 


Geothlypis trichas 




cooper's hawk 


Accipiter cooperi 




double-crested cormorant 


Phalacrocorax auritus 




down}' woodpecker 


Picoides pubescens 


CBN 



81 



eastern phocbe 


Sayornis phoebe 


M 


fish crow 


Corvus ossifragus 




forster's tern 


Sterna forsten 




gadwall 


Anas strepira 


M 


glossy ibis 


Plegadis falcmellus 




golden-crowned kinglet 


Regulus satrapa 




gray catbird 


Diimetella carolinensis 




great blue heron 


Ardea herodias 


C 


great crested flycatcher 


Myiarchus cnnitus 




great homed owl 


Bubo virginianus 




greater yellowlegs 


Tnnga melanoleiica 




green-backed heron 


Butondes striatus 




green-winged teal 


Anas crecca 




hermit thrush 


Catharus guttatus 


CM 


hooded warbler 


Wilsoma citrina 




house wren 


Troglodytes aedon 


M 


killdeer 


Charadrius vocifenis 




least bittern 


Ixobrx'chus exilis 




limpkin 


A ramus guarauna 




little blue heron 


Florida caerulea 




loggerhead shrike 


Laniiis ludovicianus 




mallard 


Anas platyrhinchos 


M 


marsh wren 


Cistothorus palustns 


M 


mississippi kite 


Ictinia mississippiensis 


R 


mottled duck 


Anas fidvigula 


SC 


mourning dove 


Zenaida macroura 


CB 


northern cardmal 


Cardinalis cardinalis 


CM 


northern flicker 


Colaptes auratus 


N 


northern hamer 


Circus cyaneus 




northern mockingbird 


Mimus polyglottus 


CBN 


northern parula warbler 


Parula americana 


B 


northern pintail 


Anas acuta 




northern shoveler 


Anas clypeata 




orange-crowTied warbler 


Verminvora celata 




osprey 


Pandion haliaetus 


CBN 


ovenbird 


Seiurus aurocapillus 


CB 


palm warbler 


Dendroica palmanim 




pied-billed grebe 


Podilymbus podiceps 




pileated woodpecker 


Dryocopus pileatus 


N 


pine warbler 


Dendroica pinus 




prothonotar}' warbler 


Protonotaria citrea 


B 


purple finch 


Carpodacus cassinii 


C 


purple gallinule 


Porphyrula martinica 


C 


red-bellied woodpecker 


Melanerpes carolinus 


CN 


red -eyed vireo 


Vireo olivacius 


C 


red-shouldered hawk 


Bute a I meatus 





82 



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red-tailcd hawk 


Buteo jamaicensis 




red-winged blackbird 


Agelaius phoeniceus 


C 


nng-billed gull 


Lams delcrwarensis 




ring-necked duck 


Aythya collans 




ruby-crowned kinglet 


Reguhis calendula 




ruby-throated hummingbird 


Archilochus coliibns 


B 


rufous -sided towhee 


Pipilo erythrophthalmus 




sandhill crane 


Gnts canadensis 


T 


savannah sparrow 


Passercidus sandwichensis 




screech o\\ 1 


Otiis asio 




sedge wren 


Cistothonis platensis 




sharp-shinned hawk 


Accipiter stnatiis 




snowy egret 


Egret ta thula 


CB 


solitary vireo 


Vireo solitarius 




song sparrow 


Melospiza melodia 




summer tanager 


Piranga rubra 




swamp sparrow 


Melospiza georgiana 




tree swallow 


Tachvcmeta bicolor 




tricolor heron 


Hvdranassa tricolor 




tufted titmouse 


Parus bj color 




turkev vulture 


Cathartes aura 


CB 


white ibis 


Eudocimus albus 


BN 


white-eved vireo 


Vireo griseus 


C 


white-throated sparrow 


Zonotrichia leucophyrs 


CM 


wild turkev 


Meleagns gallopavo 




winter wren 


Troglodytes troglodytes 


M 


wood duck 


Aix sponsa 




wood stork 


Mycteria amencana 


E 


worm-eating warbler 


Helmintheros vermivorus 




yellow billed cuckoo 


Coccvzus amencanus 




yellow-bellied sapsucker 


Sphyrapicus varius 


M 


yellow-rumped warbler 


Dendroica coronata 


M 


yellow-throat warbler 


Dendroica dommica 




yellow-throated vireo 


Vireo flavifrons 





Key to STATUS abbreviations: 



B=Breeding 
E= Endangered 
T=Threatened 



M=Migrator>', in this area less than 6 months/year 
N=Nesting SC=Species of Special Concern 
C=Common R=Rare 



Prepared by Thia Hunter, with revisions by Peter Polshek and Peter Alcorn. Additional birds were 
provided by Tom Webber. 



83 



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APPENDIX IV 



HERPETOFAUNA OF THE HOGTOWN CREEK 
DRAINAGE AND KANAPAHA LAKE REGION 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 


COMMON NAME 


STATUS 


SOURCE 


Amphibians 








Frogs and Toads 








Bufo quercicus 


oak toad 




RF 


B. terrestris 


southern toad 




HRFMNH, 
CLC 


Acris gryllus dorsal is 


florida cricket frog 




HRFMNH 


Hyla chrysoscelis 


cope's gra>' treefrog 




HRFMNH 


H. cinerea 


green treefrog 




HRFMNH 


H. femoralis 


pine woods treefrog 




RF 


H. gratiosa 


barking treefrog 




RF 


H. squire I la 


squirrel treefrog 




HRFMNH 


Pseudacris crucifer 
bartramiana 


southern spring peeper 




HRFMNH 


P. nigrila verrucosa 


florida chorus frog 




HRFMNH 


P. ocularis 


little grass frog 




RF 


P. ornata 


ornate chorus frog 




RF 


Eleuthero-dactylus p. 
planirostris 


greenhouse frog 




HRFMNH 


Gastrophryne carolinensis 


eastern narrow- mouth toad 




HRFMNH 


Scaphiopus h. holbrookii 


eastern spadefoot toad 




HRFMNH, 
CLC 


Rana capito aesopus 


florida gopher frog 


SC, PL 


RF 


R. catesbeiana 


bullfrog 






R. c. clamitans 


bronze frog 




HRFMNH 


R. grylio 


pig frog 




HRFMNH 


R. utricularia 


southern leopard frog 




HRFMNH 


Salamanders 








Ambystoma talpoideum 


mole salamander 




RF 


A. t. tigrinum 


eastern tiger salamander 


Unique 
Occurrence 


RF 


Amphiuma means 


two-toed amphiuma 




HRFMNH 


Desmognalhus auriculatus 


southern dusky salamander 




RF 


Eurycea quadridigitata 


dwarf salamander 




HRFMNH 


Plethodon grobmani 


southeastern slimy 
salamander 




RF 


Pseudotriton montanus 
floridanus 


rusty mud salamander 


Unique sp.. 
Occurrence 


HRFMNH 


Notophthalmus perstriatus 


striped newt 


PL 


HRFMNH 


v. viridescens piaropicola 


peninsula newt 




HRFMNH 


Pseudobranchus axanthus 


narrow-striped dwarf siren 




HRFMNH 


Siren i. intermedia 


eastern lesser siren 




RF 


S. lacertina 


greater siren 




HRFMNH 



84 



I 



Reptiles 








Alligator 








Alligator mississippl- 
ensis 


american alligator 


SC, RG 


HRFMNH 


Turtles and Tortoise 








Chelydra serpentina 
osceola 


florida snapping turtle 




HRFMNH 


Deirochelys reticularia 
chrvsea 


florida chii^ken turtle 




HRFMNH 


Pse udemys floridana 
peninsularis 


peninsula cooler 




HRFMNH 


P. nelsoni 


florida redbellv turtle 




HRFMNH 


Terrapene Carolina bauri 


florida box turtle 


RG 


HRFMNH, 
CLC 


Trachemys s. scripta 


yellowbelly slider 




HRFMNH 


Kinosternon baurii 


striped mud turtle 




HRFMNH 


K. subrubrum 
steindachneri 


flonda mud turtle 




RF 


Sternotherus m. minor 


loggerhead musk turtle 


RG 


RF 


S. odoratus 


stinkpot 




RF 


Gopherus polvphemus 


gopher tortoise 


SC 


HRFMNH 


Apalone ferox 


florida softshell 




HRFMNH 


Worm Lizard 








Rhineura floridana 


florida worm lizard 




HRFMNH 


Lizards 








Ophisaurus attenuatus 
longicaudus 


eastern slender glass lizard 




CLC 


0. ventral is 


eastern glass lizard 




HRFMNH, 
CLC 


Anolis carolmensis 


green anole 




HRFMNH, 
CLC 


A. sagrei 


brown anole 




HRFMNH 


Sceloporus u. undulatus 


southern fence lizard 




HRFMNH 


Eumeces egregius 
onocrepis 


peninsula mole skink 




HRFMNH 


E. fasciatus 


five-lined skink 




RF 


E. inexpectatus 


southeastern five-lined skink 




RF 


E. laticeps 


broadhead skink 




RF 


Scincella lateralis 


ground skink 




HRFMNH, 
CLC 


Cnemidophorus s. 
sexlineatus 


six-lined racerunner 




RF 


Non-Poisonous Snakes 








Cemophora c. coccinea 


florida scarlet snake 




RF 


Coluber constrictor 
priapus 


southern black racer 




HRFMNH 


Diadophis p. punctatus 


southern ringneck snake 




HRFMNH, 
CLC 


Drymarchon corais 
coupe ri 


eastern indigo snake 


T 


RF 



85 



Elaphe g. guttata 


corn snake 




HRFMNH 


E. obsoleta quadrivittata 


vellow rat snake 




HRFMNH 


Farancia a. abacura 


eastern mud snake 




RF 


Heterodon platirhinos 


eastern hognose snake 




HRFMNH 


Heterodon simus 


southern hognose snake 




RF 


Lampropeltis getula 
flondana 


florida kingsnake 




HRFMNH 


L. triangulum elapsoides 


scarlet kingsnake 




HRFMNH 


Masticophisf. flagellum 


eastern coachwhip 




RF 


Nerodiafasciata 
pictiventris 


florida banded water snake 




HRFMNH 


N. flondana 


florida green water snake 




RF 


N. taxispilota 


brown water snake 




RF 


Opheodrys aestivus 


rough green snake 




HRFMNH 


Pituophis melanoleucus 
mugitus 


florida pine snake 


SC 


FNAl 


Regina alleni 


striped crayfish snake 




HRFMNH 


R. r. rigida 


glossy crayfish snake 




RF 


Rhadinaea flavilata 


pine woods snake 




HRFMNH, 
CLC 


Seminatrix p. pygaea 


north Florida swamp snake 




HRFMNH 


Stilosoma extenuatum 


short-tailed snake 


T, Unique 
species 


HRFMNH 


Storeha dekavi victa 


florida brown snake 




HRFMNH 


S. occipito-maculata 
obscura 


florida redbclly snake 




HRFMNH 


Tanlilla relicta neilli 


central florida crowned 
snake 




HRFMNH 


Thamnophis sauhtus 
sackenii 


peninsula ribbon snake 




HRFMNH 


T. s. sirtalis 


eastern garter snake 




RF 


Virginia stnatula 


rough earth snake 




RF 


V. V. valeriae 


eastern smooth earth snake 




RF 


Poisonous Snakes 








Micrurusf. fulvius 


eastern coral snake 




HRFMNH 


Agkistrodon piscivorus 
conanti 


florida cottonmouth 




HRFMNH 


Crotalus adamanteus 


eastern diamondback 
rattlesnake 




HRFMNH 


Sistrurus miliarius 
barbouri 


dusk\ pygmy rattlesnake 




RF 



86 



Key to Svrnbols: 

Status (listed by Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission) 

PL = Proposed for Listing 

T = Threatened - fully protected 

SC = Species of Special Concern - protected except as authonzed 

by regulation 
RG = Regulated Species - species which are not fully protected, 

but for which possession limits and/or seasons may apply 

Source 

HRFMNH = Herpetology Range, Florida Museum of Natural History 
CLC = Capture or visual sighting by Cathi L. Campbell 
FNAI = Flonda Natural Areas Inventory 
RF = Expected species per Richard Franz, Florida Museum of 
Natural History 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Ashton Jr., RE. and PS. Ashton. 1981. Handbook of Reptiles 

and Amphibians of Florida, Part One, The Snakes. Windward Publishing, Inc., Miami. 

Ashton Jr., RE. and PS. Ashton. 1985. Handbook of Reptiles 

and Amphibians of Florida, Part Two, Lizards, Turtles and Crocodilians. Windward 
Publishing, Inc., Miami. 

Ashton Jr., RE. and PS. Ashton. 1988. Handbook of Reptiles 

and Amphibians of Flonda, Part Three, The Amphibians. Windward Publishing, Inc., 
Miami. 

Conant, R and J T Collms. 1991. Reptiles and Amphibians, 

Eastern/Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 

Moler, P 1990 A Checklist of Flonda's Amphibians and 

Reptiles. Flonda Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Nongame Wildlife Program. 



Prepared for Wild Things, Inc. by Cathi Campbell 



87 



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APPENDIX V Sugarfoot Fly 

Nemopalpus nearcticus Young 

This fly is a member of the family Psychodidae (Order Diptera) or sand flies and is 
the only species of the primitive subfamily Bnichomyiinae found in the Nearctic. Generally, 
fjgmopalpus nearcticus is similar in appearance to a small black mosquito (wing length 3.6- 
3.9 mm) except the mouthparts are sn-iall and not suited for bloodsucking. Other members of 
the Psychodidae are smaller and males have large spines on the styles of the genitalia. 

The species only known localities are Sugarfoot Hammock, west of Gainesville and 
Gulf Hammock in Levy County. The adults rest during the day in tree holes and crevices in 
the bark of large trees. Sweetgum, Liquidambar sryraciflua L., hophombeam, Ostrya 
virginiana K. Koch, sugarberry, Celtis laevigata Willd., oak, Quercus prinus L., and red 
bay, Persea borbonia Spreng. are the dominant trees in the Gainesville site. Adults are 
active from June through October during the wettest time of year and are most common 
during September. 

Very little is known about the larvae in the Held. In the lab, egg to adult development 
takes about 60 days. The larvae are fed a feces/Purina lab chow diet. Freida Mahmood and 
Bruce Alexander have a description of the larvae in press. 

This is a very unique fly with a very limited distribution in North America. Efforts 
should be made to prevent the loss of the known populations due to habitat loss or 
development. 

For further reading see: 



I Young, D.G. 1974. Bruchomyiinae in North America with a description of Nemopalpus 

nearcticus n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae). Fla. Entomol. 57(2): 109-1 13. 



Franz, R. [ed.] 1982. Rare and endangered biota of Florida, Invertebrates Vol. 6. University 
Presses of Florida. 

Prepared by John Amoroso 



88 



REFERENCES 

Alcom, P. 1991. Flora and Fauna of the Hogtown Creek Greenway: An Inventory' for the 
Alachua Conservation Trust prepared by Wild Things, Inc., Gainesville, FL. 

Conner, R.N. & J.G Dickson. 1980. Stnp transect sampling and analysis for avian habitat 
studies. Wildlife Societ\' Bulletin 8:4-12. 

Fish & Wildlife Service. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United 
States. U.S.Dept. of the Intenor FWS/OBS-79/31. 

Florida Natural Areas Inventory, 1990. Guide to the natural communities of Florida. 

Goin, and Netting. 1942. Ann. Carnegie Mus., 29:175-196. 

Gottfried, B.M. 1979. Small mammal populations in woodlot islands. American Midland 
Naturalist 102:105-110. 

Hobbs, 1942. Cras-fishes of Florida, Univ of Fla. Press. 

Johnson, L. 1990. Five Year Fire Management Plan for Momingside Nature Center. Department 
of Cultural and Nature Operations. Gainesville, FL. 

Muller, K. 1974. Stream drift as a chronobiological phenomenon in running water ecosystems. 

Noss, R.F. & L.D Harris. 1986. Nodes, networks, and mums: preserving diversity at all scales. 
Environmental Management 10:299-309. 

Odum, E.P. 1971. Freshwater ecology-. Chapter 11 in E.P. Odum. Principals of Ecology. Sinaur 
Academic Press. 

Ohlendorf, H.M., E.E. Klaas, & T.E. Kaiser, 1979. Environmental pollutants and eggshell 
thickness: anhmgas and wading birds in the eastern United States. USDI Fish & Wildlife 
Service Special Scientific Report 216. 

Segal, D.S., P.J. Latham, & G.R. Best. 1987. Delineating a wetland boundary using vegetative, 
soil and hydrologic charactenstics: a Florida cypress dome example. Wetlands 7:5 1-58. 

StoufFer. D.F. & LB. Best. 1980. Habitat selection by birds of riparian communities: evaluating 
effects of habitat alterations J. Wildlife Management 44:1-15. 

Swift, DM. & R.K. Steinhorst. 1976. A technique for estimating small mammal population 
densities using a grid and assessment lines. Acta Theriologica 21 (32):47 1-481. 



89 



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APPENDIX 
B 



MOGTOWN CEllBK GIRIEIBNWAY 



FLORffiA COMMUNITIES TRUST 

ANNUAL REPORTING PROCEDURE'S 



FOR THE 

CITY OF GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 

& 
ALACHUA COUNTY. FLORIDA 



% 



ANNUAL REPORTING PROCEDURES 

FOR THE 

HOGTOWN CREEK GREENWAY PROJECT 



1. At least four months prior to each anniversary date of final project 
approval by Florida Communities Trust, the City of Gainesville 
Department of Cultural and Natural Operations, will convene a meeting 
of representatives of the agencies and departments responsible for the 
Hogtown Creek Greenway System, as listed in Table 8 of this 
Management Plan or as otherwise assigned by the City or County 
Manager or by agreement between the City and the County. 

2. Prior to meeting, each agency or department will review its specific 
tasks or responsibilities for the Greenway as assigned by the 
Management Plan or otherwise and will report on its progress in 
accomplishing those tasks or responsibilities. The report of each 
agency will consist of: (1) a statement of tasks and responsibilities 
assigned to that agency, including any timetable for carrying out such 
tasks or responsibilities; (2) progress made in accomplishing such tasks 
or responsibilities: (3) reasons for any departures from anticipated 
accomplishments in terms of timing or manner of performance; (4) 
recommended modifications to the assigned tasks or responsibilities, 
including timetable for accomplishing same, based on responses to the 
preceding items. 

3. Following the meeting of responsible departments and agencies, the 
City of Gainesville Department of Cultural and Nature Operations will 
prepare a draft annual stewardship report based upon the reports from 
the participating departments and agencies. The draft report will 
incorporate information demonstrating that the requirements of Rule 
9K-4.013. Florida Administrative Code, are being met, including the 
following: (1) information confirming that the conditions imposed at 
the time the award was made are being followed, (2) monitoring of the 
stewardship and use of the property, and (3) verification that the 
conditions contained in Rule 9K-4.012, FAC, pertaining to title, 
acquisition procedures, lease agreements, and transfer of title, are 
being met. 

4. The City of Gainesville Department of Cultural and Nature Operations 
will provide copies of the draft annual stewardship report to the 
participating departments and agencies for their comment. Following 
a period of comment, the Department of Cultural and Natural 



operations will prepare a revised annual stewardship report and 
provide copies to all participating departments and agencies no later 
than two months prior to the anniversary date of final project approval 
by Florida Communities Trust. 

5. At the earliest opportunity after its completion and dissemination, the 
annual stewardship report shall be placed on the agenda at a meeting 
of the City Commission of the City of Gainesville and at a meeting of 
the Alachua County Boaid of County Commissioners for review, 
modification as necessary, and approval by motion by each governing 
body. 



6. The City of Gainesville Department of Cultural and Nature Operations 
will transmit a copy of the approved annual stewardship report to 
Florida Communities Trust prior to the anniversary of the approval 
date of the Hogtown Creek Greenway Management Plan by FCT. 



APPENDIX 
C 



HOGTOWN CEIBHIK GE1EIENWA¥ 



INTERLOCAL AGREEMENT 



BETWEEN THE 

CITY OF GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 

& 
ALACHUA COUNTY. FLORIDA 



INTERLOCAL AGREEMENT 

THIS INTERLOCAL AGREEMENT, made and entered into this c3^ ^ 
day of '^^^^t^^^^ ^^^t::^^ A.D., ig ^Z-^' . by and between Alachua 
County, a charter county and political subdivision of the State of 
Florida, acting by and through its Board of County Commissioners 
(County) , and the City of Gainesville, a municipal corporation of 
the State of Florida, acting by and through its City Commission 
(City) : 



WITNESSETH: 

WHEREAS, the City and the County have jointly authorized the 
submission of a grant application to the Florida Communities Trust 
(FCT) for matching funds to acquire certain parcels constituting 
the Hogtown Creek Greenway; and 

WHEREAS , the FCT has awarded conceptual approval for matching 
funds for the acquisition of parcels making up the Hogtown Creek 
Greenway; and 

WHEREAS, the City and County have jointly entered into a 
Conceptual Approval Agreement with the FCT, identified as FCT award 
#91-049-PlA, in order to receive matching funds for the acquisition 
of the Hogtown Creek Greenway, hereinafter referred to as the 
Project; and 



WHEREAS, the Conceptual Approval Agreement contains certain 
requirements, including the adoption of an interlocal agreement 
between the City and County setting out the relationship between 
the partners and the fiscal and management responsibilities and 
obligations incurred by each partner for the Project Site; 

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the mutual covenants and 
conditions contained herein, the parties hereto agree as follows: 

1 . This Agreement is entered into pursuant to the Florida 
Interlocal Cooperation Act, Section 163.01, Florida Statutes. 

2. The City agrees: 

a. To fund, construct, operate, manage, and maintain all 
improvements identified as the responsibility of the City in the 
Hogtown Creek Greenway/s Master Development and Management Plan 




Report dated July 71 A / / -{Management Plan) , as approved by the 

Tuly 27 

City on July 12 aIM. , 1993, and by the County orV- P{Wftr}y--i-3- 



and Wivb^6 rvkW"^y 



^ 



A.D., 1993, a copy of which is attached hereto and^-<i?ncorporated 
herein by reference, as the same shall be modified from time to 
time by mutual agreement of the parties hereto or through provision 
of an annual stewardship report prepared pursuant to the procedures 
set out in Section 4a of this Agreement. 



I 



b. Subject to the limits and provisions of Section 
768.28, Florida Statutes, and to the extent of its negligence, to 
indemnify and hold the County, its officers and employees harmless 
should any claim, suit or legal action be brought against the City 
or the County as a result of the construction, operation, 
management, or maintenance of the improvements by the City on 
County-owned property. The City agrees to provide any legal 
defense necessary against such suit or legal action at no cost to 
the County. 

3. The County agrees: 

a. To fund the acquisition of tax parcel #06909-000-000, 
or portion thereof, from the Commercial Hazardous Waste Facilities 
Tax Fund #1547 in an amount up to $75,000, contingent upon the 
I award of equal or greater match funding by the State of Florida and 
further contingent upon the use of a portion of said parcel to 
provide access to the Kanapaha Botanical Garden and to the proposed 
Greenway, as mapped and described in FCT Application #91-049-PlA 
and amended by letter from the County dated June 2, 1993. 



I 
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b. To construct a road running from State Road 24 
(Archer Road) through tax parcel #06909-000-000 to Kanapaha 
Botanical Garden, as shown in concept in Attachment #2 to a letter 
dated June 2, 1993, from the County to FCT amending FCT Application 
J #91-049-PlA. 



I 



c. Upon acquisition of tax parcel #06909-000-000 or 
portion thereof, to manage said parcel by agreement with a managing 
entity or otherwise, consistent with the requirements of the 
Conceptual Approval Agreement #91-049-PlA, as amended, and Rule 9K- 
4, Florida Administrative Code. 

d. To convey to the City an easement across those 
County-owned lands whereon improvements pertaining to the Project 
are shown in the Management Plan, as the same may be amended from 
time to time by mutual agreement of the parties hereto. The 
easement shall be for as long as such lands shall be used for 
passive recreational activities open to the public as part of the 
Project and shall be conveyed prior to issuance of a building 
permit for construction of said improvements. 

e. To perform such other functions or activities as 
may be assigned as the responsibility of the County in the annual 
stewardship report prepared pursuant to the procedures set out in 
Section 4a of this Agreement, in the Management Plan as the same 
may be amended by mutual agreement of the parties hereto, or by 
other mutual agreement between the City and the County. 

f. Subject to the limits and provisions of Section 
768.28, Florida Statutes, and to the extent of its negligence, to 
indemnify and hold the City, its officers and employees harmless 
should any claim, suit or legal action be brought against the City 



or the County as a result of the acquisition or management of 
County-owned property by the County. The County agrees to provide 
any legal defense necessary for such suit or legal action at no 
cost to the City. 

4. The City and County agree: 

a. To prepare and submit an annual stewardship report 
meeting the requirements of Rule 9K-4.013, Florida Administrative 
Code. The report shall be prepared annually following the 
procedures contained in the Management Plan and shall be approved 
by the City and County respectively. The City shall be the lead 
entity charged with the responsibility of preparing the report; the 
County shall assist by providing information pertaining to its 
obligations under the approved Management Plan, 

5. This Agreement embodies the whole understanding between 
the parties. There are no promises, terms, conditions, or 
obligations other than those contained herein; and this Agreement 
shall supersede all previous communications, representations or 
agreements, either verbal or written between the parties hereto. 

6. This Agreement may only be amended by a written document 
approved and signed by both the parties and filed with the Clerk of 
the Circuit Court of Alachua County, Florida. 



f 

I 



7. This Agreement shall take effect upon filing with the 
Clerk of the Circuit Court of Alachua County, Florida, pursuant to 
Section 163.01(11), Florida Statutes, or upon final project plan 
approval by FCT, whichever occurs later. 

8. Nothing in this agreement shall be interpreted as a 
waiver by the City or the County of its sovereign immunity except 
as provided under Section 768.28, Florida Statutes. 



IN WITNESS WHEREOF the parties hereto have caused the 
execution hereof by their duly authorized officials on the dates 
stated below. 

ALACHUA COUNTY, FLORIDA 




(SEAL) 



ATTEST: 



Title: S^6 (^^^- 



By: 




Temporary 
Chair 



for Penelope Wheat, Chair 

Board of County Commissioners 



CITY OF 



By: 




APPROVED AS TO FORM AND LEGALITY APPROVED AS TO FO 



Alachlia County Attorney 



-^frAiUd 



Ci,ty Attorne 
/ 




D LEGALITY